summaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
-rw-r--r--ChangeLog23
-rw-r--r--Makefile2
-rw-r--r--manual/=copying.texinfo540
-rw-r--r--manual/=float.texinfo414
-rw-r--r--manual/=limits.texinfo593
-rw-r--r--manual/=process.texinfo1452
-rw-r--r--manual/=stdarg.texi290
-rw-r--r--manual/=stddef.texi81
-rw-r--r--manual/Makefile8
-rw-r--r--manual/arith.texi111
-rw-r--r--manual/lang.texi38
-rw-r--r--manual/socket.texi4
-rw-r--r--manual/stdio.texi12
13 files changed, 162 insertions, 3406 deletions
diff --git a/ChangeLog b/ChangeLog
index 704b97d..e5ee09d 100644
--- a/ChangeLog
+++ b/ChangeLog
@@ -1,3 +1,22 @@
+1997-04-02 16:55 Ulrich Drepper <drepper@cygnus.com>
+
+ * manual/socket.texi: Document behaviour of inet_ntoa in multi-
+ threaded programs.
+ * manual/stdio.texi: Change wording for snprintf description a bit.
+ Correct typo in example.
+ * manual/lang.texi: Add documentation of __va_copy.
+
+ * Makefile: Add rule to easily generate dir-add.texi file.
+ * manual/Makefile: Likewise.
+
+ * manual/arith.texi: Add description of lldiv_t, lldiv, and atoll.
+ Change description of strtoll and strtoull to make clear these
+ are the preferred names.
+ Describe `inf', `inifinity', `nan', `nan(...)' inputs for strtod
+ and friends.
+ Change references to HUGE_VALf and HUGE_VALl to HUGE_VALF and
+ HUGE_VALL.
+
1997-04-02 16:28 Ulrich Drepper <drepper@cygnus.com>
* grp/fgetgrent.c: Don't use fixed buffer length. Allow dynamic
@@ -31,10 +50,10 @@
* wcsmbs/wcstof.c: Likewise.
* wcsmbs/wcstold.c: Likewise.
- * sysdeps/libm-ieee754/s_nan.c: Use strtod is parameter is not empty
+ * sysdeps/libm-ieee754/s_nan.c: Use strtod if parameter is not empty
string.
* sysdeps/libm-ieee754/s_nanf.c: Likewise.
- * sysdeps/libm-ieee754/s_nanld.c: Likewise.
+ * sysdeps/libm-ieee754/s_nanl.c: Likewise.
1997-04-02 13:56 Ulrich Drepper <drepper@cygnus.com>
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 0dae836..f441d90 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -313,6 +313,8 @@ makeinfo --no-validate --no-warn --no-headers $< -o $@
endef
INSTALL: manual/maint.texi; $(format-me)
NOTES: manual/creature.texi; $(format-me)
+manual/dir-add.texi:
+ $(MAKE) $(PARALLELMFLAGS) -C $(@D) $(@F)
rpm/%: subdir_distinfo
$(MAKE) $(PARALLELMFLAGS) -C $(@D) subdirs='$(subdirs)' $(@F)
diff --git a/manual/=copying.texinfo b/manual/=copying.texinfo
deleted file mode 100644
index 6a61d64..0000000
--- a/manual/=copying.texinfo
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,540 +0,0 @@
-@comment This material was copied from /gd/gnu/doc/lgpl.texinfo.
-
-@node Copying, Concept Index, Maintenance, Top
-@appendix GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
-@center Version 2, June 1991
-
-@display
-Copyright @copyright{} 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
-675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
-Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
-of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
-
-[This is the first released version of the library GPL. It is
- numbered 2 because it goes with version 2 of the ordinary GPL.]
-@end display
-
-@unnumberedsec Preamble
-
- The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
-freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
-Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
-free software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.
-
- This license, the Library General Public License, applies to some
-specially designated Free Software Foundation software, and to any
-other libraries whose authors decide to use it. You can use it for
-your libraries, too.
-
- When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
-price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
-have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
-this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
-if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
-in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
-
- To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
-anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
-These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if
-you distribute copies of the library, or if you modify it.
-
- For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis
-or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that we gave
-you. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source
-code. If you link a program with the library, you must provide
-complete object files to the recipients so that they can relink them
-with the library, after making changes to the library and recompiling
-it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
-
- Our method of protecting your rights has two steps: (1) copyright
-the library, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal
-permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the library.
-
- Also, for each distributor's protection, we want to make certain
-that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
-library. If the library is modified by someone else and passed on, we
-want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original
-version, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on
-the original authors' reputations.
-
- Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
-patents. We wish to avoid the danger that companies distributing free
-software will individually obtain patent licenses, thus in effect
-transforming the program into proprietary software. To prevent this,
-we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's
-free use or not licensed at all.
-
- Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary
-GNU General Public License, which was designed for utility programs. This
-license, the GNU Library General Public License, applies to certain
-designated libraries. This license is quite different from the ordinary
-one; be sure to read it in full, and don't assume that anything in it is
-the same as in the ordinary license.
-
- The reason we have a separate public license for some libraries is that
-they blur the distinction we usually make between modifying or adding to a
-program and simply using it. Linking a program with a library, without
-changing the library, is in some sense simply using the library, and is
-analogous to running a utility program or application program. However, in
-a textual and legal sense, the linked executable is a combined work, a
-derivative of the original library, and the ordinary General Public License
-treats it as such.
-
- Because of this blurred distinction, using the ordinary General
-Public License for libraries did not effectively promote software
-sharing, because most developers did not use the libraries. We
-concluded that weaker conditions might promote sharing better.
-
- However, unrestricted linking of non-free programs would deprive the
-users of those programs of all benefit from the free status of the
-libraries themselves. This Library General Public License is intended to
-permit developers of non-free programs to use free libraries, while
-preserving your freedom as a user of such programs to change the free
-libraries that are incorporated in them. (We have not seen how to achieve
-this as regards changes in header files, but we have achieved it as regards
-changes in the actual functions of the Library.) The hope is that this
-will lead to faster development of free libraries.
-
- The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
-modification follow. Pay close attention to the difference between a
-``work based on the library'' and a ``work that uses the library''. The
-former contains code derived from the library, while the latter only
-works together with the library.
-
- Note that it is possible for a library to be covered by the ordinary
-General Public License rather than by this special one.
-
-@iftex
-@unnumberedsec TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
-@end iftex
-@ifinfo
-@center TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
-@end ifinfo
-
-@enumerate
-@item
-This License Agreement applies to any software library which
-contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized
-party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Library
-General Public License (also called ``this License''). Each licensee is
-addressed as ``you''.
-
- A ``library'' means a collection of software functions and/or data
-prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application programs
-(which use some of those functions and data) to form executables.
-
- The ``Library'', below, refers to any such software library or work
-which has been distributed under these terms. A ``work based on the
-Library'' means either the Library or any derivative work under
-copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Library or a
-portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated
-straightforwardly into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is
-included without limitation in the term ``modification''.)
-
- ``Source code'' for a work means the preferred form of the work for
-making modifications to it. For a library, complete source code means
-all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated
-interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation
-and installation of the library.
-
- Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
-covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
-running a program using the Library is not restricted, and output from
-such a program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based
-on the Library (independent of the use of the Library in a tool for
-writing it). Whether that is true depends on what the Library does
-and what the program that uses the Library does.
-
-@item
-You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Library's
-complete source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that
-you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an
-appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact
-all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
-warranty; and distribute a copy of this License along with the
-Library.
-
- You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy,
-and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a
-fee.
-
-@item
-You may modify your copy or copies of the Library or any portion
-of it, thus forming a work based on the Library, and copy and
-distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
-above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
-
-@enumerate a
-@item
-The modified work must itself be a software library.
-
-@item
-You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices
-stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
-
-@item
-You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no
-charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
-
-@item
-If a facility in the modified Library refers to a function or a
-table of data to be supplied by an application program that uses
-the facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility
-is invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that,
-in the event an application does not supply such function or
-table, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of
-its purpose remains meaningful.
-
-(For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has
-a purpose that is entirely well-defined independent of the
-application. Therefore, Subsection 2d requires that any
-application-supplied function or table used by this function must
-be optional: if the application does not supply it, the square
-root function must still compute square roots.)
-@end enumerate
-
-These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
-identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Library,
-and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
-themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
-sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
-distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
-on the Library, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
-this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
-entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote
-it.
-
-Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
-your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
-exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
-collective works based on the Library.
-
-In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Library
-with the Library (or with a work based on the Library) on a volume of
-a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
-the scope of this License.
-
-@item
-You may opt to apply the terms of the ordinary GNU General Public
-License instead of this License to a given copy of the Library. To do
-this, you must alter all the notices that refer to this License, so
-that they refer to the ordinary GNU General Public License, version 2,
-instead of to this License. (If a newer version than version 2 of the
-ordinary GNU General Public License has appeared, then you can specify
-that version instead if you wish.) Do not make any other change in
-these notices.
-
- Once this change is made in a given copy, it is irreversible for
-that copy, so the ordinary GNU General Public License applies to all
-subsequent copies and derivative works made from that copy.
-
- This option is useful when you wish to copy part of the code of
-the Library into a program that is not a library.
-
-@item
-You may copy and distribute the Library (or a portion or
-derivative of it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form
-under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you accompany
-it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which
-must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a
-medium customarily used for software interchange.
-
- If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy
-from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the
-source code from the same place satisfies the requirement to
-distribute the source code, even though third parties are not
-compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
-
-@item
-A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the
-Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or
-linked with it, is called a ``work that uses the Library''. Such a
-work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and
-therefore falls outside the scope of this License.
-
- However, linking a ``work that uses the Library'' with the Library
-creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library (because it
-contains portions of the Library), rather than a ``work that uses the
-library''. The executable is therefore covered by this License.
-Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables.
-
- When a ``work that uses the Library'' uses material from a header file
-that is part of the Library, the object code for the work may be a
-derivative work of the Library even though the source code is not.
-Whether this is true is especially significant if the work can be
-linked without the Library, or if the work is itself a library. The
-threshold for this to be true is not precisely defined by law.
-
- If such an object file uses only numerical parameters, data
-structure layouts and accessors, and small macros and small inline
-functions (ten lines or less in length), then the use of the object
-file is unrestricted, regardless of whether it is legally a derivative
-work. (Executables containing this object code plus portions of the
-Library will still fall under Section 6.)
-
- Otherwise, if the work is a derivative of the Library, you may
-distribute the object code for the work under the terms of Section 6.
-Any executables containing that work also fall under Section 6,
-whether or not they are linked directly with the Library itself.
-
-@item
-As an exception to the Sections above, you may also compile or
-link a ``work that uses the Library'' with the Library to produce a
-work containing portions of the Library, and distribute that work
-under terms of your choice, provided that the terms permit
-modification of the work for the customer's own use and reverse
-engineering for debugging such modifications.
-
- You must give prominent notice with each copy of the work that the
-Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by
-this License. You must supply a copy of this License. If the work
-during execution displays copyright notices, you must include the
-copyright notice for the Library among them, as well as a reference
-directing the user to the copy of this License. Also, you must do one
-of these things:
-
-@enumerate a
-@item
-Accompany the work with the complete corresponding
-machine-readable source code for the Library including whatever
-changes were used in the work (which must be distributed under
-Sections 1 and 2 above); and, if the work is an executable linked
-with the Library, with the complete machine-readable ``work that
-uses the Library'', as object code and/or source code, so that the
-user can modify the Library and then relink to produce a modified
-executable containing the modified Library. (It is understood
-that the user who changes the contents of definitions files in the
-Library will not necessarily be able to recompile the application
-to use the modified definitions.)
-
-@item
-Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at
-least three years, to give the same user the materials
-specified in Subsection 6a, above, for a charge no more
-than the cost of performing this distribution.
-
-@item
-If distribution of the work is made by offering access to copy
-from a designated place, offer equivalent access to copy the above
-specified materials from the same place.
-
-@item
-Verify that the user has already received a copy of these
-materials or that you have already sent this user a copy.
-@end enumerate
-
- For an executable, the required form of the ``work that uses the
-Library'' must include any data and utility programs needed for
-reproducing the executable from it. However, as a special exception,
-the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally
-distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major
-components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on
-which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies
-the executable.
-
- It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license
-restrictions of other proprietary libraries that do not normally
-accompany the operating system. Such a contradiction means you cannot
-use both them and the Library together in an executable that you
-distribute.
-
-@item
-You may place library facilities that are a work based on the
-Library side-by-side in a single library together with other library
-facilities not covered by this License, and distribute such a combined
-library, provided that the separate distribution of the work based on
-the Library and of the other library facilities is otherwise
-permitted, and provided that you do these two things:
-
-@enumerate a
-@item
-Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work
-based on the Library, uncombined with any other library
-facilities. This must be distributed under the terms of the
-Sections above.
-
-@item
-Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact
-that part of it is a work based on the Library, and explaining
-where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work.
-@end enumerate
-
-@item
-You may not copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute
-the Library except as expressly provided under this License. Any
-attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or
-distribute the Library is void, and will automatically terminate your
-rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies,
-or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
-terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-
-@item
-You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
-signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
-distribute the Library or its derivative works. These actions are
-prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
-modifying or distributing the Library (or any work based on the
-Library), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
-all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
-the Library or works based on it.
-
-@item
-Each time you redistribute the Library (or any work based on the
-Library), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
-original licensor to copy, distribute, link with or modify the Library
-subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
-restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
-You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
-this License.
-
-@item
-If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
-infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
-conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
-otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
-excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
-distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
-License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
-may not distribute the Library at all. For example, if a patent
-license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Library by
-all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
-the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
-refrain entirely from distribution of the Library.
-
-If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any
-particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply,
-and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
-
-It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
-patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
-such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
-integrity of the free software distribution system which is
-implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
-generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
-through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
-system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
-to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
-impose that choice.
-
-This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
-be a consequence of the rest of this License.
-
-@item
-If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in
-certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
-original copyright holder who places the Library under this License may add
-an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries,
-so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus
-excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if
-written in the body of this License.
-
-@item
-The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
-versions of the Library General Public License from time to time.
-Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version,
-but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
-
-Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library
-specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and
-``any later version'', you have the option of following the terms and
-conditions either of that version or of any later version published by
-the Free Software Foundation. If the Library does not specify a
-license version number, you may choose any version ever published by
-the Free Software Foundation.
-
-@item
-If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free
-programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these,
-write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is
-copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free
-Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our
-decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status
-of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing
-and reuse of software generally.
-
-@iftex
-@heading NO WARRANTY
-@end iftex
-@ifinfo
-@center NO WARRANTY
-@end ifinfo
-
-@item
-BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
-WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.
-EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR
-OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY ``AS IS'' WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
-KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
-IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
-PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
-LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME
-THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
-
-@item
-IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
-WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY
-AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU
-FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
-CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
-LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
-RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
-FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF
-SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
-DAMAGES.
-@end enumerate
-
-@iftex
-@heading END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
-@end iftex
-@ifinfo
-@center END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
-@end ifinfo
-
-@page
-@unnumberedsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
-
- If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest
-possible use to the public, we recommend making it free software that
-everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting
-redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of the
-ordinary General Public License).
-
- To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is
-safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
-convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
-``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
-
-@smallexample
-@var{one line to give the library's name and a brief idea of what it does.}
-Copyright (C) @var{year} @var{name of author}
-
-This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
-modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
-License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
-version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
-
-This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
-Library General Public License for more details.
-
-You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
-License along with this library; if not, write to the Free
-Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
-@end smallexample
-
-Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
-
-You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
-school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the library, if
-necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
-
-@example
-Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
-library `Frob' (a library for tweaking knobs) written by James Random Hacker.
-
-@var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1990
-Ty Coon, President of Vice
-@end example
-
-That's all there is to it!
diff --git a/manual/=float.texinfo b/manual/=float.texinfo
deleted file mode 100644
index d4e3920..0000000
--- a/manual/=float.texinfo
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,414 +0,0 @@
-@node Floating-Point Limits
-@chapter Floating-Point Limits
-@pindex <float.h>
-@cindex floating-point number representation
-@cindex representation of floating-point numbers
-
-Because floating-point numbers are represented internally as approximate
-quantities, algorithms for manipulating floating-point data often need
-to be parameterized in terms of the accuracy of the representation.
-Some of the functions in the C library itself need this information; for
-example, the algorithms for printing and reading floating-point numbers
-(@pxref{I/O on Streams}) and for calculating trigonometric and
-irrational functions (@pxref{Mathematics}) use information about the
-underlying floating-point representation to avoid round-off error and
-loss of accuracy. User programs that implement numerical analysis
-techniques also often need to be parameterized in this way in order to
-minimize or compute error bounds.
-
-The specific representation of floating-point numbers varies from
-machine to machine. The GNU C Library defines a set of parameters which
-characterize each of the supported floating-point representations on a
-particular system.
-
-@menu
-* Floating-Point Representation:: Definitions of terminology.
-* Floating-Point Parameters:: Descriptions of the library facilities.
-* IEEE Floating-Point:: An example of a common representation.
-@end menu
-
-@node Floating-Point Representation
-@section Floating-Point Representation
-
-This section introduces the terminology used to characterize the
-representation of floating-point numbers.
-
-You are probably already familiar with most of these concepts in terms
-of scientific or exponential notation for floating-point numbers. For
-example, the number @code{123456.0} could be expressed in exponential
-notation as @code{1.23456e+05}, a shorthand notation indicating that the
-mantissa @code{1.23456} is multiplied by the base @code{10} raised to
-power @code{5}.
-
-More formally, the internal representation of a floating-point number
-can be characterized in terms of the following parameters:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-The @dfn{sign} is either @code{-1} or @code{1}.
-@cindex sign (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The @dfn{base} or @dfn{radix} for exponentiation; an integer greater
-than @code{1}. This is a constant for the particular representation.
-@cindex base (of floating-point number)
-@cindex radix (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The @dfn{exponent} to which the base is raised. The upper and lower
-bounds of the exponent value are constants for the particular
-representation.
-@cindex exponent (of floating-point number)
-
-Sometimes, in the actual bits representing the floating-point number,
-the exponent is @dfn{biased} by adding a constant to it, to make it
-always be represented as an unsigned quantity. This is only important
-if you have some reason to pick apart the bit fields making up the
-floating-point number by hand, which is something for which the GNU
-library provides no support. So this is ignored in the discussion that
-follows.
-@cindex bias, in exponent (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The value of the @dfn{mantissa} or @dfn{significand}, which is an
-unsigned quantity.
-@cindex mantissa (of floating-point number)
-@cindex significand (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The @dfn{precision} of the mantissa. If the base of the representation
-is @var{b}, then the precision is the number of base-@var{b} digits in
-the mantissa. This is a constant for the particular representation.
-
-Many floating-point representations have an implicit @dfn{hidden bit} in
-the mantissa. Any such hidden bits are counted in the precision.
-Again, the GNU library provides no facilities for dealing with such low-level
-aspects of the representation.
-@cindex precision (of floating-point number)
-@cindex hidden bit, in mantissa (of floating-point number)
-@end itemize
-
-The mantissa of a floating-point number actually represents an implicit
-fraction whose denominator is the base raised to the power of the
-precision. Since the largest representable mantissa is one less than
-this denominator, the value of the fraction is always strictly less than
-@code{1}. The mathematical value of a floating-point number is then the
-product of this fraction; the sign; and the base raised to the exponent.
-
-If the floating-point number is @dfn{normalized}, the mantissa is also
-greater than or equal to the base raised to the power of one less
-than the precision (unless the number represents a floating-point zero,
-in which case the mantissa is zero). The fractional quantity is
-therefore greater than or equal to @code{1/@var{b}}, where @var{b} is
-the base.
-@cindex normalized floating-point number
-
-@node Floating-Point Parameters
-@section Floating-Point Parameters
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} This section needs some more concrete examples
-of what these parameters mean and how to use them in a program.
-
-These macro definitions can be accessed by including the header file
-@file{<float.h>} in your program.
-
-Macro names starting with @samp{FLT_} refer to the @code{float} type,
-while names beginning with @samp{DBL_} refer to the @code{double} type
-and names beginning with @samp{LDBL_} refer to the @code{long double}
-type. (In implementations that do not support @code{long double} as
-a distinct data type, the values for those constants are the same
-as the corresponding constants for the @code{double} type.)@refill
-
-Note that only @code{FLT_RADIX} is guaranteed to be a constant
-expression, so the other macros listed here cannot be reliably used in
-places that require constant expressions, such as @samp{#if}
-preprocessing directives and array size specifications.
-
-Although the @w{ISO C} standard specifies minimum and maximum values for
-most of these parameters, the GNU C implementation uses whatever
-floating-point representations are supported by the underlying hardware.
-So whether GNU C actually satisfies the @w{ISO C} requirements depends on
-what machine it is running on.
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_ROUNDS
-This value characterizes the rounding mode for floating-point addition.
-The following values indicate standard rounding modes:
-
-@table @code
-@item -1
-The mode is indeterminable.
-@item 0
-Rounding is towards zero.
-@item 1
-Rounding is to the nearest number.
-@item 2
-Rounding is towards positive infinity.
-@item 3
-Rounding is towards negative infinity.
-@end table
-
-@noindent
-Any other value represents a machine-dependent nonstandard rounding
-mode.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_RADIX
-This is the value of the base, or radix, of exponent representation.
-This is guaranteed to be a constant expression, unlike the other macros
-described in this section.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MANT_DIG
-This is the number of base-@code{FLT_RADIX} digits in the floating-point
-mantissa for the @code{float} data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MANT_DIG
-This is the number of base-@code{FLT_RADIX} digits in the floating-point
-mantissa for the @code{double} data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MANT_DIG
-This is the number of base-@code{FLT_RADIX} digits in the floating-point
-mantissa for the @code{long double} data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_DIG
-This is the number of decimal digits of precision for the @code{float}
-data type. Technically, if @var{p} and @var{b} are the precision and
-base (respectively) for the representation, then the decimal precision
-@var{q} is the maximum number of decimal digits such that any floating
-point number with @var{q} base 10 digits can be rounded to a floating
-point number with @var{p} base @var{b} digits and back again, without
-change to the @var{q} decimal digits.
-
-The value of this macro is guaranteed to be at least @code{6}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_DIG
-This is similar to @code{FLT_DIG}, but is for the @code{double} data
-type. The value of this macro is guaranteed to be at least @code{10}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_DIG
-This is similar to @code{FLT_DIG}, but is for the @code{long double}
-data type. The value of this macro is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{10}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MIN_EXP
-This is the minimum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{FLT_RADIX} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-normalized floating-point number of type @code{float}. In terms of the
-actual implementation, this is just the smallest value that can be
-represented in the exponent field of the number.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MIN_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_EXP}, but is for the @code{double} data
-type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MIN_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_EXP}, but is for the @code{long double}
-data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MIN_10_EXP
-This is the minimum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{10} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-normalized floating-point number of type @code{float}. This is
-guaranteed to be no greater than @code{-37}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MIN_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{double}
-data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MIN_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{long
-double} data type.
-@end defvr
-
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MAX_EXP
-This is the maximum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{FLT_RADIX} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-floating-point number of type @code{float}. In terms of the actual
-implementation, this is just the largest value that can be represented
-in the exponent field of the number.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MAX_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_EXP}, but is for the @code{double} data
-type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MAX_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_EXP}, but is for the @code{long double}
-data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MAX_10_EXP
-This is the maximum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{10} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-normalized floating-point number of type @code{float}. This is
-guaranteed to be at least @code{37}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MAX_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{double}
-data type.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MAX_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{long
-double} data type.
-@end defvr
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MAX
-The value of this macro is the maximum representable floating-point
-number of type @code{float}, and is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{1E+37}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MAX
-The value of this macro is the maximum representable floating-point
-number of type @code{double}, and is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{1E+37}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MAX
-The value of this macro is the maximum representable floating-point
-number of type @code{long double}, and is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{1E+37}.
-@end defvr
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_MIN
-The value of this macro is the minimum normalized positive
-floating-point number that is representable by type @code{float}, and is
-guaranteed to be no more than @code{1E-37}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_MIN
-The value of this macro is the minimum normalized positive
-floating-point number that is representable by type @code{double}, and
-is guaranteed to be no more than @code{1E-37}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_MIN
-The value of this macro is the minimum normalized positive
-floating-point number that is representable by type @code{long double},
-and is guaranteed to be no more than @code{1E-37}.
-@end defvr
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro FLT_EPSILON
-This is the minimum positive floating-point number of type @code{float}
-such that @code{1.0 + FLT_EPSILON != 1.0} is true. It's guaranteed to
-be no greater than @code{1E-5}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro DBL_EPSILON
-This is similar to @code{FLT_EPSILON}, but is for the @code{double}
-type. The maximum value is @code{1E-9}.
-@end defvr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@defvr Macro LDBL_EPSILON
-This is similar to @code{FLT_EPSILON}, but is for the @code{long double}
-type. The maximum value is @code{1E-9}.
-@end defvr
-
-
-
-@node IEEE Floating Point
-@section IEEE Floating Point
-
-Here is an example showing how these parameters work for a common
-floating point representation, specified by the @cite{IEEE Standard for
-Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (ANSI/IEEE Std 754-1985 or ANSI/IEEE
-Std 854-1987)}.
-
-The IEEE single-precision float representation uses a base of 2. There
-is a sign bit, a mantissa with 23 bits plus one hidden bit (so the total
-precision is 24 base-2 digits), and an 8-bit exponent that can represent
-values in the range -125 to 128, inclusive.
-
-So, for an implementation that uses this representation for the
-@code{float} data type, appropriate values for the corresponding
-parameters are:
-
-@example
-FLT_RADIX 2
-FLT_MANT_DIG 24
-FLT_DIG 6
-FLT_MIN_EXP -125
-FLT_MIN_10_EXP -37
-FLT_MAX_EXP 128
-FLT_MAX_10_EXP +38
-FLT_MIN 1.17549435E-38F
-FLT_MAX 3.40282347E+38F
-FLT_EPSILON 1.19209290E-07F
-@end example
diff --git a/manual/=limits.texinfo b/manual/=limits.texinfo
deleted file mode 100644
index 7b55d70..0000000
--- a/manual/=limits.texinfo
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,593 +0,0 @@
-@node Representation Limits, System Configuration Limits, System Information, Top
-@chapter Representation Limits
-
-This chapter contains information about constants and parameters that
-characterize the representation of the various integer and
-floating-point types supported by the GNU C library.
-
-@menu
-* Integer Representation Limits:: Determining maximum and minimum
- representation values of
- various integer subtypes.
-* Floating-Point Limits :: Parameters which characterize
- supported floating-point
- representations on a particular
- system.
-@end menu
-
-@node Integer Representation Limits, Floating-Point Limits , , Representation Limits
-@section Integer Representation Limits
-@cindex integer representation limits
-@cindex representation limits, integer
-@cindex limits, integer representation
-
-Sometimes it is necessary for programs to know about the internal
-representation of various integer subtypes. For example, if you want
-your program to be careful not to overflow an @code{int} counter
-variable, you need to know what the largest representable value that
-fits in an @code{int} is. These kinds of parameters can vary from
-compiler to compiler and machine to machine. Another typical use of
-this kind of parameter is in conditionalizing data structure definitions
-with @samp{#ifdef} to select the most appropriate integer subtype that
-can represent the required range of values.
-
-Macros representing the minimum and maximum limits of the integer types
-are defined in the header file @file{limits.h}. The values of these
-macros are all integer constant expressions.
-@pindex limits.h
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int CHAR_BIT
-This is the number of bits in a @code{char}, usually eight.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int SCHAR_MIN
-This is the minimum value that can be represented by a @code{signed char}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int SCHAR_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by a @code{signed char}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int UCHAR_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by a @code{unsigned char}.
-(The minimum value of an @code{unsigned char} is zero.)
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int CHAR_MIN
-This is the minimum value that can be represented by a @code{char}.
-It's equal to @code{SCHAR_MIN} if @code{char} is signed, or zero
-otherwise.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int CHAR_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by a @code{char}.
-It's equal to @code{SCHAR_MAX} if @code{char} is signed, or
-@code{UCHAR_MAX} otherwise.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int SHRT_MIN
-This is the minimum value that can be represented by a @code{signed
-short int}. On most machines that the GNU C library runs on,
-@code{short} integers are 16-bit quantities.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int SHRT_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by a @code{signed
-short int}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int USHRT_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by an @code{unsigned
-short int}. (The minimum value of an @code{unsigned short int} is zero.)
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int INT_MIN
-This is the minimum value that can be represented by a @code{signed
-int}. On most machines that the GNU C system runs on, an @code{int} is
-a 32-bit quantity.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int INT_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by a @code{signed
-int}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {unsigned int} UINT_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by an @code{unsigned
-int}. (The minimum value of an @code{unsigned int} is zero.)
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {long int} LONG_MIN
-This is the minimum value that can be represented by a @code{signed long
-int}. On most machines that the GNU C system runs on, @code{long}
-integers are 32-bit quantities, the same size as @code{int}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {long int} LONG_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by a @code{signed long
-int}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment limits.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {unsigned long int} ULONG_MAX
-This is the maximum value that can be represented by an @code{unsigned
-long int}. (The minimum value of an @code{unsigned long int} is zero.)
-@end deftypevr
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} There should be corresponding limits for the GNU
-C Compiler's @code{long long} type, too. (But they are not now present
-in the header file.)
-
-The header file @file{limits.h} also defines some additional constants
-that parameterize various operating system and file system limits. These
-constants are described in @ref{System Parameters} and @ref{File System
-Parameters}.
-@pindex limits.h
-
-
-@node Floating-Point Limits , , Integer Representation Limits, Representation Limits
-@section Floating-Point Limits
-@cindex floating-point number representation
-@cindex representation, floating-point number
-@cindex limits, floating-point representation
-
-Because floating-point numbers are represented internally as approximate
-quantities, algorithms for manipulating floating-point data often need
-to be parameterized in terms of the accuracy of the representation.
-Some of the functions in the C library itself need this information; for
-example, the algorithms for printing and reading floating-point numbers
-(@pxref{I/O on Streams}) and for calculating trigonometric and
-irrational functions (@pxref{Mathematics}) use information about the
-underlying floating-point representation to avoid round-off error and
-loss of accuracy. User programs that implement numerical analysis
-techniques also often need to be parameterized in this way in order to
-minimize or compute error bounds.
-
-The specific representation of floating-point numbers varies from
-machine to machine. The GNU C library defines a set of parameters which
-characterize each of the supported floating-point representations on a
-particular system.
-
-@menu
-* Floating-Point Representation:: Definitions of terminology.
-* Floating-Point Parameters:: Descriptions of the library
- facilities.
-* IEEE Floating Point:: An example of a common
- representation.
-@end menu
-
-@node Floating-Point Representation, Floating-Point Parameters, , Floating-Point Limits
-@subsection Floating-Point Representation
-
-This section introduces the terminology used to characterize the
-representation of floating-point numbers.
-
-You are probably already familiar with most of these concepts in terms
-of scientific or exponential notation for floating-point numbers. For
-example, the number @code{123456.0} could be expressed in exponential
-notation as @code{1.23456e+05}, a shorthand notation indicating that the
-mantissa @code{1.23456} is multiplied by the base @code{10} raised to
-power @code{5}.
-
-More formally, the internal representation of a floating-point number
-can be characterized in terms of the following parameters:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-The @dfn{sign} is either @code{-1} or @code{1}.
-@cindex sign (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The @dfn{base} or @dfn{radix} for exponentiation; an integer greater
-than @code{1}. This is a constant for the particular representation.
-@cindex base (of floating-point number)
-@cindex radix (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The @dfn{exponent} to which the base is raised. The upper and lower
-bounds of the exponent value are constants for the particular
-representation.
-@cindex exponent (of floating-point number)
-
-Sometimes, in the actual bits representing the floating-point number,
-the exponent is @dfn{biased} by adding a constant to it, to make it
-always be represented as an unsigned quantity. This is only important
-if you have some reason to pick apart the bit fields making up the
-floating-point number by hand, which is something for which the GNU
-library provides no support. So this is ignored in the discussion that
-follows.
-@cindex bias (of floating-point number exponent)
-
-@item
-The value of the @dfn{mantissa} or @dfn{significand}, which is an
-unsigned integer.
-@cindex mantissa (of floating-point number)
-@cindex significand (of floating-point number)
-
-@item
-The @dfn{precision} of the mantissa. If the base of the representation
-is @var{b}, then the precision is the number of base-@var{b} digits in
-the mantissa. This is a constant for the particular representation.
-
-Many floating-point representations have an implicit @dfn{hidden bit} in
-the mantissa. Any such hidden bits are counted in the precision.
-Again, the GNU library provides no facilities for dealing with such low-level
-aspects of the representation.
-@cindex precision (of floating-point number)
-@cindex hidden bit (of floating-point number mantissa)
-@end itemize
-
-The mantissa of a floating-point number actually represents an implicit
-fraction whose denominator is the base raised to the power of the
-precision. Since the largest representable mantissa is one less than
-this denominator, the value of the fraction is always strictly less than
-@code{1}. The mathematical value of a floating-point number is then the
-product of this fraction; the sign; and the base raised to the exponent.
-
-If the floating-point number is @dfn{normalized}, the mantissa is also
-greater than or equal to the base raised to the power of one less
-than the precision (unless the number represents a floating-point zero,
-in which case the mantissa is zero). The fractional quantity is
-therefore greater than or equal to @code{1/@var{b}}, where @var{b} is
-the base.
-@cindex normalized floating-point number
-
-@node Floating-Point Parameters, IEEE Floating Point, Floating-Point Representation, Floating-Point Limits
-@subsection Floating-Point Parameters
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} This section needs some more concrete examples
-of what these parameters mean and how to use them in a program.
-
-These macro definitions can be accessed by including the header file
-@file{float.h} in your program.
-@pindex float.h
-
-Macro names starting with @samp{FLT_} refer to the @code{float} type,
-while names beginning with @samp{DBL_} refer to the @code{double} type
-and names beginning with @samp{LDBL_} refer to the @code{long double}
-type. (In implementations that do not support @code{long double} as
-a distinct data type, the values for those constants are the same
-as the corresponding constants for the @code{double} type.)@refill
-@cindex @code{float} representation limits
-@cindex @code{double} representation limits
-@cindex @code{long double} representation limits
-
-Of these macros, only @code{FLT_RADIX} is guaranteed to be a constant
-expression. The other macros listed here cannot be reliably used in
-places that require constant expressions, such as @samp{#if}
-preprocessing directives or array size specifications.
-
-Although the @w{ISO C} standard specifies minimum and maximum values for
-most of these parameters, the GNU C implementation uses whatever
-floating-point representations are supported by the underlying hardware.
-So whether GNU C actually satisfies the @w{ISO C} requirements depends on
-what machine it is running on.
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_ROUNDS
-This value characterizes the rounding mode for floating-point addition.
-The following values indicate standard rounding modes:
-
-@table @code
-@item -1
-The mode is indeterminable.
-@item 0
-Rounding is towards zero.
-@item 1
-Rounding is to the nearest number.
-@item 2
-Rounding is towards positive infinity.
-@item 3
-Rounding is towards negative infinity.
-@end table
-
-@noindent
-Any other value represents a machine-dependent nonstandard rounding
-mode.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_RADIX
-This is the value of the base, or radix, of exponent representation.
-This is guaranteed to be a constant expression, unlike the other macros
-described in this section.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_MANT_DIG
-This is the number of base-@code{FLT_RADIX} digits in the floating-point
-mantissa for the @code{float} data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int DBL_MANT_DIG
-This is the number of base-@code{FLT_RADIX} digits in the floating-point
-mantissa for the @code{double} data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int LDBL_MANT_DIG
-This is the number of base-@code{FLT_RADIX} digits in the floating-point
-mantissa for the @code{long double} data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_DIG
-This is the number of decimal digits of precision for the @code{float}
-data type. Technically, if @var{p} and @var{b} are the precision and
-base (respectively) for the representation, then the decimal precision
-@var{q} is the maximum number of decimal digits such that any floating
-point number with @var{q} base 10 digits can be rounded to a floating
-point number with @var{p} base @var{b} digits and back again, without
-change to the @var{q} decimal digits.
-
-The value of this macro is guaranteed to be at least @code{6}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int DBL_DIG
-This is similar to @code{FLT_DIG}, but is for the @code{double} data
-type. The value of this macro is guaranteed to be at least @code{10}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int LDBL_DIG
-This is similar to @code{FLT_DIG}, but is for the @code{long double}
-data type. The value of this macro is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{10}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_MIN_EXP
-This is the minimum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{FLT_RADIX} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-normalized floating-point number of type @code{float}. In terms of the
-actual implementation, this is just the smallest value that can be
-represented in the exponent field of the number.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int DBL_MIN_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_EXP}, but is for the @code{double} data
-type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int LDBL_MIN_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_EXP}, but is for the @code{long double}
-data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_MIN_10_EXP
-This is the minimum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{10} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-normalized floating-point number of type @code{float}. This is
-guaranteed to be no greater than @code{-37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int DBL_MIN_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{double}
-data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int LDBL_MIN_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MIN_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{long
-double} data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_MAX_EXP
-This is the maximum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{FLT_RADIX} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-floating-point number of type @code{float}. In terms of the actual
-implementation, this is just the largest value that can be represented
-in the exponent field of the number.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int DBL_MAX_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_EXP}, but is for the @code{double} data
-type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int LDBL_MAX_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_EXP}, but is for the @code{long double}
-data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int FLT_MAX_10_EXP
-This is the maximum negative integer such that the mathematical value
-@code{10} raised to this power minus 1 can be represented as a
-normalized floating-point number of type @code{float}. This is
-guaranteed to be at least @code{37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int DBL_MAX_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{double}
-data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int LDBL_MAX_10_EXP
-This is similar to @code{FLT_MAX_10_EXP}, but is for the @code{long
-double} data type.
-@end deftypevr
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro double FLT_MAX
-The value of this macro is the maximum representable floating-point
-number of type @code{float}, and is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{1E+37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro double DBL_MAX
-The value of this macro is the maximum representable floating-point
-number of type @code{double}, and is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{1E+37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {long double} LDBL_MAX
-The value of this macro is the maximum representable floating-point
-number of type @code{long double}, and is guaranteed to be at least
-@code{1E+37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro double FLT_MIN
-The value of this macro is the minimum normalized positive
-floating-point number that is representable by type @code{float}, and is
-guaranteed to be no more than @code{1E-37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro double DBL_MIN
-The value of this macro is the minimum normalized positive
-floating-point number that is representable by type @code{double}, and
-is guaranteed to be no more than @code{1E-37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {long double} LDBL_MIN
-The value of this macro is the minimum normalized positive
-floating-point number that is representable by type @code{long double},
-and is guaranteed to be no more than @code{1E-37}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro double FLT_EPSILON
-This is the minimum positive floating-point number of type @code{float}
-such that @code{1.0 + FLT_EPSILON != 1.0} is true. It's guaranteed to
-be no greater than @code{1E-5}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro double DBL_EPSILON
-This is similar to @code{FLT_EPSILON}, but is for the @code{double}
-type. The maximum value is @code{1E-9}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment float.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {long double} LDBL_EPSILON
-This is similar to @code{FLT_EPSILON}, but is for the @code{long double}
-type. The maximum value is @code{1E-9}.
-@end deftypevr
-
-
-@node IEEE Floating Point, , Floating-Point Parameters, Floating-Point Limits
-@subsection IEEE Floating Point
-@cindex IEEE floating-point representation
-@cindex floating-point, IEEE
-@cindex IEEE Std 754
-
-
-Here is an example showing how these parameters work for a common
-floating point representation, specified by the @cite{IEEE Standard for
-Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (ANSI/IEEE Std 754-1985 or ANSI/IEEE
-Std 854-1987)}. Nearly all computers today use this format.
-
-The IEEE single-precision float representation uses a base of 2. There
-is a sign bit, a mantissa with 23 bits plus one hidden bit (so the total
-precision is 24 base-2 digits), and an 8-bit exponent that can represent
-values in the range -125 to 128, inclusive.
-
-So, for an implementation that uses this representation for the
-@code{float} data type, appropriate values for the corresponding
-parameters are:
-
-@example
-FLT_RADIX 2
-FLT_MANT_DIG 24
-FLT_DIG 6
-FLT_MIN_EXP -125
-FLT_MIN_10_EXP -37
-FLT_MAX_EXP 128
-FLT_MAX_10_EXP +38
-FLT_MIN 1.17549435E-38F
-FLT_MAX 3.40282347E+38F
-FLT_EPSILON 1.19209290E-07F
-@end example
-
-Here are the values for the @code{double} data type:
-
-@example
-DBL_MANT_DIG 53
-DBL_DIG 15
-DBL_MIN_EXP -1021
-DBL_MIN_10_EXP -307
-DBL_MAX_EXP 1024
-DBL_MAX_10_EXP 308
-DBL_MAX 1.7976931348623157E+308
-DBL_MIN 2.2250738585072014E-308
-DBL_EPSILON 2.2204460492503131E-016
-@end example
diff --git a/manual/=process.texinfo b/manual/=process.texinfo
deleted file mode 100644
index 4618cff..0000000
--- a/manual/=process.texinfo
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1452 +0,0 @@
-@node Processes, Job Control, Signal Handling, Top
-@chapter Processes
-
-@cindex process
-@dfn{Processes} are the primitive units for allocation of system
-resources. Each process has its own address space and (usually) one
-thread of control. A process executes a program; you can have multiple
-processes executing the same program, but each process has its own copy
-of the program within its own address space and executes it
-independently of the other copies.
-
-Processes are organized hierarchically. Child processes are created by
-a parent process, and inherit many of their attributes from the parent
-process.
-
-This chapter describes how a program can create, terminate, and control
-child processes.
-
-@menu
-* Program Arguments:: Parsing the command-line arguments to
- a program.
-* Environment Variables:: How to access parameters inherited from
- a parent process.
-* Program Termination:: How to cause a process to terminate and
- return status information to its parent.
-* Creating New Processes:: Running other programs.
-@end menu
-
-
-@node Program Arguments, Environment Variables, , Processes
-@section Program Arguments
-@cindex program arguments
-@cindex command line arguments
-
-@cindex @code{main} function
-When your C program starts, it begins by executing the function called
-@code{main}. You can define @code{main} either to take no arguments,
-or to take two arguments that represent the command line arguments
-to the program, like this:
-
-@example
-int main (int @var{argc}, char *@var{argv}[])
-@end example
-
-@cindex argc (program argument count)
-@cindex argv (program argument vector)
-The command line arguments are the whitespace-separated tokens typed by
-the user to the shell in invoking the program. The value of the
-@var{argc} argument is the number of command line arguments. The
-@var{argv} argument is a vector of pointers to @code{char}; sometimes it
-is also declared as @samp{char **@var{argv}}. The elements of
-@var{argv} are the individual command line argument strings. By
-convention, @code{@var{argv}[0]} is the file name of the program being
-run, and @code{@var{argv}[@var{argc}]} is a null pointer.
-
-If the syntax for the command line arguments to your program is simple
-enough, you can simply pick the arguments off from @var{argv} by hand.
-But unless your program takes a fixed number of arguments, or all of the
-arguments are interpreted in the same way (as file names, for example),
-you are usually better off using @code{getopt} to do the parsing.
-
-@menu
-* Argument Syntax Conventions:: By convention, program
- options are specified by a
- leading hyphen.
-* Parsing Program Arguments:: The @code{getopt} function.
-* Example Using getopt:: An example of @code{getopt}.
-@end menu
-
-@node Argument Syntax Conventions, Parsing Program Arguments, , Program Arguments
-@subsection Program Argument Syntax Conventions
-@cindex program argument syntax
-@cindex syntax, for program arguments
-@cindex command argument syntax
-
-The @code{getopt} function decodes options following the usual
-conventions for POSIX utilities:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-Arguments are options if they begin with a hyphen delimiter (@samp{-}).
-
-@item
-Multiple options may follow a hyphen delimiter in a single token if
-the options do not take arguments. Thus, @samp{-abc} is equivalent to
-@samp{-a -b -c}.
-
-@item
-Option names are single alphanumeric (as for @code{isalnum};
-see @ref{Classification of Characters}).
-
-@item
-Certain options require an argument. For example, the @samp{-o}
-command of the ld command requires an argument---an output file name.
-
-@item
-An option and its argument may or may appear as separate tokens. (In
-other words, the whitespace separating them is optional.) Thus,
-@samp{-o foo} and @samp{-ofoo} are equivalent.
-
-@item
-Options typically precede other non-option arguments.
-
-The implementation of @code{getopt} in the GNU C library normally makes
-it appear as if all the option arguments were specified before all the
-non-option arguments for the purposes of parsing, even if the user of
-your program intermixed option and non-option arguments. It does this
-by reordering the elements of the @var{argv} array. This behavior is
-nonstandard; if you want to suppress it, define the
-@code{_POSIX_OPTION_ORDER} environment variable. @xref{Standard
-Environment Variables}.
-
-@item
-The argument @samp{--} terminates all options; any following arguments
-are treated as non-option arguments, even if they begin with a hyphen.
-
-@item
-A token consisting of a single hyphen character is interpreted as an
-ordinary non-option argument. By convention, it is used to specify
-input from or output to the standard input and output streams.
-
-@item
-Options may be supplied in any order, or appear multiple times. The
-interpretation is left up to the particular application program.
-@end itemize
-
-@node Parsing Program Arguments, Example Using getopt, Argument Syntax Conventions, Program Arguments
-@subsection Parsing Program Arguments
-@cindex program arguments, parsing
-@cindex command arguments, parsing
-@cindex parsing program arguments
-
-Here are the details about how to call the @code{getopt} function. To
-use this facility, your program must include the header file
-@file{unistd.h}.
-@pindex unistd.h
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.2
-@deftypevar int opterr
-If the value of this variable is nonzero, then @code{getopt} prints an
-error message to the standard error stream if it encounters an unknown
-option character or an option with a missing required argument. This is
-the default behavior. If you set this variable to zero, @code{getopt}
-does not print any messages, but it still returns @code{?} to indicate
-an error.
-@end deftypevar
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.2
-@deftypevar int optopt
-When @code{getopt} encounters an unknown option character or an option
-with a missing required argument, it stores that option character in
-this variable. You can use this for providing your own diagnostic
-messages.
-@end deftypevar
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.2
-@deftypevar int optind
-This variable is set by @code{getopt} to the index of the next element
-of the @var{argv} array to be processed. Once @code{getopt} has found
-all of the option arguments, you can use this variable to determine
-where the remaining non-option arguments begin. The initial value of
-this variable is @code{1}.
-@end deftypevar
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.2
-@deftypevar {char *} optarg
-This variable is set by @code{getopt} to point at the value of the
-option argument, for those options that accept arguments.
-@end deftypevar
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.2
-@deftypefun int getopt (int @var{argc}, char **@var{argv}, const char *@var{options})
-The @code{getopt} function gets the next option argument from the
-argument list specified by the @var{argv} and @var{argc} arguments.
-Normally these arguments' values come directly from the arguments of
-@code{main}.
-
-The @var{options} argument is a string that specifies the option
-characters that are valid for this program. An option character in this
-string can be followed by a colon (@samp{:}) to indicate that it takes a
-required argument.
-
-If the @var{options} argument string begins with a hyphen (@samp{-}), this
-is treated specially. It permits arguments without an option to be
-returned as if they were associated with option character @samp{\0}.
-
-The @code{getopt} function returns the option character for the next
-command line option. When no more option arguments are available, it
-returns @code{-1}. There may still be more non-option arguments; you
-must compare the external variable @code{optind} against the @var{argv}
-parameter to check this.
-
-If the options has an argument, @code{getopt} returns the argument by
-storing it in the varables @var{optarg}. You don't ordinarily need to
-copy the @code{optarg} string, since it is a pointer into the original
-@var{argv} array, not into a static area that might be overwritten.
-
-If @code{getopt} finds an option character in @var{argv} that was not
-included in @var{options}, or a missing option argument, it returns
-@samp{?} and sets the external variable @code{optopt} to the actual
-option character. In addition, if the external variable @code{opterr}
-is nonzero, @code{getopt} prints an error message.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@node Example Using getopt, , Parsing Program Arguments, Program Arguments
-@subsection Example of Parsing Program Arguments
-
-Here is an example showing how @code{getopt} is typically used. The
-key points to notice are:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-Normally, @code{getopt} is called in a loop. When @code{getopt} returns
-@code{-1}, indicating no more options are present, the loop terminates.
-
-@item
-A @code{switch} statement is used to dispatch on the return value from
-@code{getopt}. In typical use, each case just sets a variable that
-is used later in the program.
-
-@item
-A second loop is used to process the remaining non-option arguments.
-@end itemize
-
-@example
-@include testopt.c.texi
-@end example
-
-Here are some examples showing what this program prints with different
-combinations of arguments:
-
-@example
-% testopt
-aflag = 0, bflag = 0, cvalue = (null)
-
-% testopt -a -b
-aflag = 1, bflag = 1, cvalue = (null)
-
-% testopt -ab
-aflag = 1, bflag = 1, cvalue = (null)
-
-% testopt -c foo
-aflag = 0, bflag = 0, cvalue = foo
-
-% testopt -cfoo
-aflag = 0, bflag = 0, cvalue = foo
-
-% testopt arg1
-aflag = 0, bflag = 0, cvalue = (null)
-Non-option argument arg1
-
-% testopt -a arg1
-aflag = 1, bflag = 0, cvalue = (null)
-Non-option argument arg1
-
-% testopt -c foo arg1
-aflag = 0, bflag = 0, cvalue = foo
-Non-option argument arg1
-
-% testopt -a -- -b
-aflag = 1, bflag = 0, cvalue = (null)
-Non-option argument -b
-
-% testopt -a -
-aflag = 1, bflag = 0, cvalue = (null)
-Non-option argument -
-@end example
-
-@node Environment Variables, Program Termination, Program Arguments, Processes
-@section Environment Variables
-
-@cindex environment variable
-When a program is executed, it receives information about the context in
-which it was invoked in two ways. The first mechanism uses the
-@var{argv} and @var{argc} arguments to its @code{main} function, and is
-discussed in @ref{Program Arguments}. The second mechanism is
-uses @dfn{environment variables} and is discussed in this section.
-
-The @var{argv} mechanism is typically used to pass command-line
-arguments specific to the particular program being invoked. The
-environment, on the other hand, keeps track of information that is
-shared by many programs, changes infrequently, and that is less
-frequently accessed.
-
-The environment variables discussed in this section are the same
-environment variables that you set using the assignments and the
-@code{export} command in the shell. Programs executed from the shell
-inherit all of the environment variables from the shell.
-
-@cindex environment
-Standard environment variables are used for information about the user's
-home directory, terminal type, current locale, and so on; you can define
-additional variables for other purposes. The set of all environment
-variables that have values is collectively known as the
-@dfn{environment}.
-
-Names of environment variables are case-sensitive and must not contain
-the character @samp{=}. System-defined environment variables are
-invariably uppercase.
-
-The values of environment variables can be anything that can be
-represented as a string. A value must not contain an embedded null
-character, since this is assumed to terminate the string.
-
-
-@menu
-* Environment Access:: How to get and set the values of
- environment variables.
-* Standard Environment Variables:: These environment variables have
- standard interpretations.
-@end menu
-
-@node Environment Access, Standard Environment Variables, , Environment Variables
-@subsection Environment Access
-@cindex environment access
-@cindex environment representation
-
-The value of an environment variable can be accessed with the
-@code{getenv} function. This is declared in the header file
-@file{stdlib.h}.
-@pindex stdlib.h
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefun {char *} getenv (const char *@var{name})
-This function returns a string that is the value of the environment
-variable @var{name}. You must not modify this string. In some systems
-not using the GNU library, it might be overwritten by subsequent calls
-to @code{getenv} (but not by any other library function). If the
-environment variable @var{name} is not defined, the value is a null
-pointer.
-@end deftypefun
-
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment SVID
-@deftypefun int putenv (const char *@var{string})
-The @code{putenv} function adds or removes definitions from the environment.
-If the @var{string} is of the form @samp{@var{name}=@var{value}}, the
-definition is added to the environment. Otherwise, the @var{string} is
-interpreted as the name of an environment variable, and any definition
-for this variable in the environment is removed.
-
-The GNU library provides this function for compatibility with SVID; it
-may not be available in other systems.
-@end deftypefun
-
-You can deal directly with the underlying representation of environment
-objects to add more variables to the environment (for example, to
-communicate with another program you are about to execute; see
-@ref{Executing a File}).
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypevar {char **} environ
-The environment is represented as an array of strings. Each string is
-of the format @samp{@var{name}=@var{value}}. The order in which
-strings appear in the environment is not significant, but the same
-@var{name} must not appear more than once. The last element of the
-array is a null pointer.
-
-This variable is not declared in any header file, but if you declare it
-in your own program as @code{extern}, the right thing will happen.
-
-If you just want to get the value of an environment variable, use
-@code{getenv}.
-@end deftypevar
-
-@node Standard Environment Variables, , Environment Access, Environment Variables
-@subsection Standard Environment Variables
-@cindex standard environment variables
-
-These environment variables have standard meanings.
-This doesn't mean that they are always present in the
-environment, though; it just means that if these variables @emph{are}
-present, they have these meanings, and that you shouldn't try to use
-these environment variable names for some other purpose.
-
-@table @code
-@item HOME
-@cindex HOME environment variable
-@cindex home directory
-This is a string representing the user's @dfn{home directory}, or
-initial default working directory. @xref{User Database}, for a
-more secure way of determining this information.
-
-@comment RMS says to explay why HOME is better, but I don't know why.
-
-@item LOGNAME
-@cindex LOGNAME environment variable
-This is the name that the user used to log in. Since the value in the
-environment can be tweaked arbitrarily, this is not a reliable way to
-identify the user who is running a process; a function like
-@code{getlogin} (@pxref{User Identification Functions}) is better for
-that purpose.
-
-@comment RMS says to explay why LOGNAME is better, but I don't know why.
-
-@item PATH
-@cindex PATH environment variable
-A @dfn{path} is a sequence of directory names which is used for
-searching for a file. The variable @var{PATH} holds a path The
-@code{execlp} and @code{execvp} functions (@pxref{Executing a File})
-uses this environment variable, as do many shells and other utilities
-which are implemented in terms of those functions.
-
-The syntax of a path is a sequence of directory names separated by
-colons. An empty string instead of a directory name stands for the
-current directory. (@xref{Working Directory}.)
-
-A typical value for this environment variable might be a string like:
-
-@example
-.:/bin:/etc:/usr/bin:/usr/new/X11:/usr/new:/usr/local:/usr/local/bin
-@end example
-
-This means that if the user tries to execute a program named @code{foo},
-the system will look for files named @file{./foo}, @file{/bin/foo},
-@file{/etc/foo}, and so on. The first of these files that exists is
-the one that is executed.
-
-@item TERM
-@cindex TERM environment variable
-This specifies the kind of terminal that is receiving program output.
-Some programs can make use of this information to take advantage of
-special escape sequences or terminal modes supported by particular kinds
-of terminals. Many programs which use the termcap library
-(@pxref{Finding a Terminal Description,Find,,termcap,The Termcap Library
-Manual}) use the @code{TERM} environment variable, for example.
-
-@item TZ
-@cindex TZ environment variable
-This specifies the time zone. @xref{Time Zone}, for information about
-the format of this string and how it is used.
-
-@item LANG
-@cindex LANG environment variable
-This specifies the default locale to use for attribute categories where
-neither @code{LC_ALL} nor the specific environment variable for that
-category is set. @xref{Locales}, for more information about
-locales.
-
-@item LC_ALL
-@cindex LC_ALL environment variable
-This is similar to the @code{LANG} environment variable. However, its
-value takes precedence over any values provided for the individual
-attribute category environment variables, or for the @code{LANG}
-environment variable.
-
-@item LC_COLLATE
-@cindex LC_COLLATE environment variable
-This specifies what locale to use for string sorting.
-
-@item LC_CTYPE
-@cindex LC_CTYPE environment variable
-This specifies what locale to use for character sets and character
-classification.
-
-@item LC_MONETARY
-@cindex LC_MONETARY environment variable
-This specifies what locale to use for formatting monetary values.
-
-@item LC_NUMERIC
-@cindex LC_NUMERIC environment variable
-This specifies what locale to use for formatting numbers.
-
-@item LC_TIME
-@cindex LC_TIME environment variable
-This specifies what locale to use for formatting date/time values.
-
-@item _POSIX_OPTION_ORDER
-@cindex _POSIX_OPTION_ORDER environment variable.
-If this environment variable is defined, it suppresses the usual
-reordering of command line arguments by @code{getopt}. @xref{Program
-Argument Syntax Conventions}.
-@end table
-
-@node Program Termination, Creating New Processes, Environment Variables, Processes
-@section Program Termination
-@cindex program termination
-@cindex process termination
-
-@cindex exit status value
-The usual way for a program to terminate is simply for its @code{main}
-function to return. The @dfn{exit status value} returned from the
-@code{main} function is used to report information back to the process's
-parent process or shell.
-
-A program can also terminate normally calling the @code{exit}
-function
-
-In addition, programs can be terminated by signals; this is discussed in
-more detail in @ref{Signal Handling}. The @code{abort} function causes
-a terminal that kills the program.
-
-@menu
-* Normal Program Termination::
-* Exit Status:: Exit Status
-* Cleanups on Exit:: Cleanups on Exit
-* Aborting a Program::
-* Termination Internals:: Termination Internals
-@end menu
-
-@node Normal Program Termination, Exit Status, , Program Termination
-@subsection Normal Program Termination
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefun void exit (int @var{status})
-The @code{exit} function causes normal program termination with status
-@var{status}. This function does not return.
-@end deftypefun
-
-When a program terminates normally by returning from its @code{main}
-function or by calling @code{exit}, the following actions occur in
-sequence:
-
-@enumerate
-@item
-Functions that were registered with the @code{atexit} or @code{on_exit}
-functions are called in the reverse order of their registration. This
-mechanism allows your application to specify its own ``cleanup'' actions
-to be performed at program termination. Typically, this is used to do
-things like saving program state information in a file, or unlock locks
-in shared data bases.
-
-@item
-All open streams are closed; writing out any buffered output data. See
-@ref{Opening and Closing Streams}. In addition, temporary files opened
-with the @code{tmpfile} function are removed; see @ref{Temporary Files}.
-
-@item
-@code{_exit} is called. @xref{Termination Internals}
-@end enumerate
-
-@node Exit Status, Cleanups on Exit, Normal Program Termination, Program Termination
-@subsection Exit Status
-@cindex exit status
-
-When a program exits, it can return to the parent process a small
-amount of information about the cause of termination, using the
-@dfn{exit status}. This is a value between 0 and 255 that the exiting
-process passes as an argument to @code{exit}.
-
-Normally you should use the exit status to report very broad information
-about success or failure. You can't provide a lot of detail about the
-reasons for the failure, and most parent processes would not want much
-detail anyway.
-
-There are conventions for what sorts of status values certain programs
-should return. The most common convention is simply 0 for success and 1
-for failure. Programs that perform comparison use a different
-convention: they use status 1 to indicate a mismatch, and status 2 to
-indicate an inability to compare. Your program should follow an
-existing convention if an existing convention makes sense for it.
-
-A general convention reserves status values 128 and up for special
-purposes. In particular, the value 128 is used to indicate failure to
-execute another program in a subprocess. This convention is not
-universally obeyed, but it is a good idea to follow it in your programs.
-
-@strong{Warning:} Don't try to use the number of errors as the exit
-status. This is actually not very useful; a parent process would
-generally not care how many errors occurred. Worse than that, it does
-not work, because the status value is truncated to eight bits.
-Thus, if the program tried to report 256 errors, the parent would
-receive a report of 0 errors---that is, success.
-
-For the same reason, it does not work to use the value of @code{errno}
-as the exit status---these can exceed 255.
-
-@strong{Portability note:} Some non-POSIX systems use different
-conventions for exit status values. For greater portability, you can
-use the macros @code{EXIT_SUCCESS} and @code{EXIT_FAILURE} for the
-conventional status value for success and failure, respectively. They
-are declared in the file @file{stdlib.h}.
-@pindex stdlib.h
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int EXIT_SUCCESS
-This macro can be used with the @code{exit} function to indicate
-successful program completion.
-
-On POSIX systems, the value of this macro is @code{0}. On other
-systems, the value might be some other (possibly non-constant) integer
-expression.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro int EXIT_FAILURE
-This macro can be used with the @code{exit} function to indicate
-unsuccessful program completion in a general sense.
-
-On POSIX systems, the value of this macro is @code{1}. On other
-systems, the value might be some other (possibly non-constant) integer
-expression. Other nonzero status values also indicate future. Certain
-programs use different nonzero status values to indicate particular
-kinds of "non-success". For example, @code{diff} uses status value
-@code{1} to mean that the files are different, and @code{2} or more to
-mean that there was difficulty in opening the files.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@node Cleanups on Exit, Aborting a Program, Exit Status, Program Termination
-@subsection Cleanups on Exit
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefun int atexit (void (*@var{function}))
-The @code{atexit} function registers the function @var{function} to be
-called at normal program termination. The @var{function} is called with
-no arguments.
-
-The return value from @code{atexit} is zero on success and nonzero if
-the function cannot be registered.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment GNU
-@deftypefun int on_exit (void (*@var{function})(int @var{status}, void *@var{arg}), void *@var{arg})
-This function is a somewhat more powerful variant of @code{atexit}. It
-accepts two arguments, a function @var{function} and an arbitrary
-pointer @var{arg}. At normal program termination, the @var{function} is
-called with two arguments: the @var{status} value passed to @code{exit},
-and the @var{arg}.
-
-This function is a GNU extension, and may not be supported by other
-implementations.
-@end deftypefun
-
-Here's a trivial program that illustrates the use of @code{exit} and
-@code{atexit}:
-
-@example
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <stdlib.h>
-
-void bye (void)
-@{
- printf ("Goodbye, cruel world....\n");
-@}
-
-void main (void)
-@{
- atexit (bye);
- exit (EXIT_SUCCESS);
-@}
-@end example
-
-@noindent
-When this program is executed, it just prints the message and exits.
-
-
-@node Aborting a Program, Termination Internals, Cleanups on Exit, Program Termination
-@subsection Aborting a Program
-@cindex aborting a program
-
-You can abort your program using the @code{abort} function. The prototype
-for this function is in @file{stdlib.h}.
-@pindex stdlib.h
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefun void abort ()
-The @code{abort} function causes abnormal program termination, without
-executing functions registered with @code{atexit} or @code{on_exit}.
-
-This function actually terminates the process by raising a
-@code{SIGABRT} signal, and your program can include a handler to
-intercept this signal; see @ref{Signal Handling}.
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} Why would you want to define such a handler?
-@end deftypefun
-
-@node Termination Internals, , Aborting a Program, Program Termination
-@subsection Termination Internals
-
-The @code{_exit} function is the primitive used for process termination
-by @code{exit}. It is declared in the header file @file{unistd.h}.
-@pindex unistd.h
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun void _exit (int @var{status})
-The @code{_exit} function is the primitive for causing a process to
-terminate with status @var{status}. Calling this function does not
-execute cleanup functions registered with @code{atexit} or
-@code{on_exit}.
-@end deftypefun
-
-When a process terminates for any reason---either by an explicit
-termination call, or termination as a result of a signal---the
-following things happen:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-All open file descriptors in the process are closed. @xref{Low-Level
-Input/Output}.
-
-@item
-The low-order 8 bits of the return status code are saved to be reported
-back to the parent process via @code{wait} or @code{waitpid}; see
-@ref{Process Completion}.
-
-@item
-Any child processes of the process being terminated are assigned a new
-parent process. (This is the @code{init} process, with process ID 1.)
-
-@item
-A @code{SIGCHLD} signal is sent to the parent process.
-
-@item
-If the process is a session leader that has a controlling terminal, then
-a @code{SIGHUP} signal is sent to each process in the foreground job,
-and the controlling terminal is disassociated from that session.
-@xref{Job Control}.
-
-@item
-If termination of a process causes a process group to become orphaned,
-and any member of that process group is stopped, then a @code{SIGHUP}
-signal and a @code{SIGCONT} signal are sent to each process in the
-group. @xref{Job Control}.
-@end itemize
-
-@node Creating New Processes, , Program Termination, Processes
-@section Creating New Processes
-
-This section describes how your program can cause other programs to be
-executed. Actually, there are three distinct operations involved:
-creating a new child process, causing the new process to execute a
-program, and coordinating the completion of the child process with the
-original program.
-
-The @code{system} function provides a simple, portable mechanism for
-running another program; it does all three steps automatically. If you
-need more control over the details of how this is done, you can use the
-primitive functions to do each step individually instead.
-
-@menu
-* Running a Command:: The easy way to run another program.
-* Process Creation Concepts:: An overview of the hard way to do it.
-* Process Identification:: How to get the process ID of a process.
-* Creating a Process:: How to fork a child process.
-* Executing a File:: How to get a process to execute another
- program.
-* Process Completion:: How to tell when a child process has
- completed.
-* Process Completion Status:: How to interpret the status value
- returned from a child process.
-* BSD wait Functions:: More functions, for backward
- compatibility.
-* Process Creation Example:: A complete example program.
-@end menu
-
-
-@node Running a Command, Process Creation Concepts, , Creating New Processes
-@subsection Running a Command
-@cindex running a command
-
-The easy way to run another program is to use the @code{system}
-function. This function does all the work of running a subprogram, but
-it doesn't give you much control over the details: you have to wait
-until the subprogram terminates before you can do anything else.
-
-@pindex stdlib.h
-
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefun int system (const char *@var{command})
-This function executes @var{command} as a shell command. In the GNU C
-library, it always uses the default shell @code{sh} to run the command.
-In particular, it searching the directories in @code{PATH} to find
-programs to execute. The return value is @code{-1} if it wasn't
-possible to create the shell process, and otherwise is the status of the
-shell process. @xref{Process Completion}, for details on how this
-status code can be interpreted.
-@pindex sh
-@end deftypefun
-
-The @code{system} function is declared in the header file
-@file{stdlib.h}.
-
-@strong{Portability Note:} Some C implementations may not have any
-notion of a command processor that can execute other programs. You can
-determine whether a command processor exists by executing @code{system
-(o)}; in this case the return value is nonzero if and only if such a
-processor is available.
-
-The @code{popen} and @code{pclose} functions (@pxref{Pipe to a
-Subprocess}) are closely related to the @code{system} function. They
-allow the parent process to communicate with the standard input and
-output channels of the command being executed.
-
-@node Process Creation Concepts, Process Identification, Running a Command, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Process Creation Concepts
-
-This section gives an overview of processes and of the steps involved in
-creating a process and making it run another program.
-
-@cindex process ID
-@cindex process lifetime
-Each process is named by a @dfn{process ID} number. A unique process ID
-is allocated to each process when it is created. The @dfn{lifetime} of
-a process ends when its termination is reported to its parent process;
-at that time, all of the process resources, including its process ID,
-are freed.
-
-@cindex creating a process
-@cindex forking a process
-@cindex child process
-@cindex parent process
-Processes are created with the @code{fork} system call (so the operation
-of creating a new process is sometimes called @dfn{forking} a process).
-The @dfn{child process} created by @code{fork} is an exact clone of the
-original @dfn{parent process}, except that it has its own process ID.
-
-After forking a child process, both the parent and child processes
-continue to execute normally. If you want your program to wait for a
-child process to finish executing before continuing, you must do this
-explicitly after the fork operation. This is done with the @code{wait}
-or @code{waitpid} functions (@pxref{Process Completion}). These
-functions give the parent information about why the child
-terminated---for example, its exit status code.
-
-A newly forked child process continues to execute the same program as
-its parent process, at the point where the @code{fork} call returns.
-You can use the return value from @code{fork} to tell whether the program
-is running in the parent process or the child.
-
-@cindex process image
-Having all processes run the same program is usually not very useful.
-But the child can execute another program using one of the @code{exec}
-functions; see @ref{Executing a File}. The program that the process is
-executing is called its @dfn{process image}. Starting execution of a
-new program causes the process to forget all about its current process
-image; when the new program exits, the process exits too, instead of
-returning to the previous process image.
-
-
-@node Process Identification, Creating a Process, Process Creation Concepts, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Process Identification
-
-The @code{pid_t} data type represents process IDs. You can get the
-process ID of a process by calling @code{getpid}. The function
-@code{getppid} returns the process ID of the parent of the parent of the
-current process (this is also known as the @dfn{parent process ID}).
-Your program should include the header files @file{unistd.h} and
-@file{sys/types.h} to use these functions.
-@pindex sys/types.h
-@pindex unistd.h
-
-@comment sys/types.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftp {Data Type} pid_t
-The @code{pid_t} data type is a signed integer type which is capable
-of representing a process ID. In the GNU library, this is an @code{int}.
-@end deftp
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun pid_t getpid ()
-The @code{getpid} function returns the process ID of the current process.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun pid_t getppid ()
-The @code{getppid} function returns the process ID of the parent of the
-current process.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@node Creating a Process, Executing a File, Process Identification, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Creating a Process
-
-The @code{fork} function is the primitive for creating a process.
-It is declared in the header file @file{unistd.h}.
-@pindex unistd.h
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun pid_t fork ()
-The @code{fork} function creates a new process.
-
-If the operation is successful, there are then both parent and child
-processes and both see @code{fork} return, but with different values: it
-returns a value of @code{0} in the child process and returns the child's
-process ID in the parent process. If the child process could not be
-created, a value of @code{-1} is returned in the parent process. The
-following @code{errno} error conditions are defined for this function:
-
-@table @code
-@item EAGAIN
-There aren't enough system resources to create another process, or the
-user already has too many processes running.
-
-@item ENOMEM
-The process requires more space than the system can supply.
-@end table
-@end deftypefun
-
-The specific attributes of the child process that differ from the
-parent process are:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-The child process has its own unique process ID.
-
-@item
-The parent process ID of the child process is the process ID of its
-parent process.
-
-@item
-The child process gets its own copies of the parent process's open file
-descriptors. Subsequently changing attributes of the file descriptors
-in the parent process won't affect the file descriptors in the child,
-and vice versa. @xref{Control Operations}.
-
-@item
-The elapsed processor times for the child process are set to zero;
-see @ref{Processor Time}.
-
-@item
-The child doesn't inherit file locks set by the parent process.
-@xref{Control Operations}.
-
-@item
-The child doesn't inherit alarms set by the parent process.
-@xref{Setting an Alarm}.
-
-@item
-The set of pending signals (@pxref{Delivery of Signal}) for the child
-process is cleared. (The child process inherits its mask of blocked
-signals and signal actions from the parent process.)
-@end itemize
-
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment BSD
-@deftypefun pid_t vfork (void)
-The @code{vfork} function is similar to @code{fork} but more efficient;
-however, there are restrictions you must follow to use it safely.
-
-While @code{fork} makes a complete copy of the calling process's address
-space and allows both the parent and child to execute independently,
-@code{vfork} does not make this copy. Instead, the child process
-created with @code{vfork} shares its parent's address space until it calls
-one of the @code{exec} functions. In the meantime, the parent process
-suspends execution.
-
-You must be very careful not to allow the child process created with
-@code{vfork} to modify any global data or even local variables shared
-with the parent. Furthermore, the child process cannot return from (or
-do a long jump out of) the function that called @code{vfork}! This
-would leave the parent process's control information very confused. If
-in doubt, use @code{fork} instead.
-
-Some operating systems don't really implement @code{vfork}. The GNU C
-library permits you to use @code{vfork} on all systems, but actually
-executes @code{fork} if @code{vfork} isn't available.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@node Executing a File, Process Completion, Creating a Process, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Executing a File
-@cindex executing a file
-@cindex @code{exec} functions
-
-This section describes the @code{exec} family of functions, for executing
-a file as a process image. You can use these functions to make a child
-process execute a new program after it has been forked.
-
-The functions in this family differ in how you specify the arguments,
-but otherwise they all do the same thing. They are declared in the
-header file @file{unistd.h}.
-@pindex unistd.h
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun int execv (const char *@var{filename}, char *const @var{argv}@t{[]})
-The @code{execv} function executes the file named by @var{filename} as a
-new process image.
-
-The @var{argv} argument is an array of null-terminated strings that is
-used to provide a value for the @code{argv} argument to the @code{main}
-function of the program to be executed. The last element of this array
-must be a null pointer. @xref{Program Arguments}, for information on
-how programs can access these arguments.
-
-The environment for the new process image is taken from the
-@code{environ} variable of the current process image; see @ref{Environment
-Variables}, for information about environments.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun int execl (const char *@var{filename}, const char *@var{arg0}, @dots{})
-This is similar to @code{execv}, but the @var{argv} strings are
-specified individually instead of as an array. A null pointer must be
-passed as the last such argument.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun int execve (const char *@var{filename}, char *const @var{argv}@t{[]}, char *const @var{env}@t{[]})
-This is similar to @code{execv}, but permits you to specify the environment
-for the new program explicitly as the @var{env} argument. This should
-be an array of strings in the same format as for the @code{environ}
-variable; see @ref{Environment Access}.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun int execle (const char *@var{filename}, const char *@var{arg0}, char *const @var{env}@t{[]}, @dots{})
-This is similar to @code{execl}, but permits you to specify the
-environment for the new program explicitly. The environment argument is
-passed following the null pointer that marks the last @var{argv}
-argument, and should be an array of strings in the same format as for
-the @code{environ} variable.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun int execvp (const char *@var{filename}, char *const @var{argv}@t{[]})
-The @code{execvp} function is similar to @code{execv}, except that it
-searches the directories listed in the @code{PATH} environment variable
-(@pxref{Standard Environment Variables}) to find the full file name of a
-file from @var{filename} if @var{filename} does not contain a slash.
-
-This function is useful for executing installed system utility programs,
-so that the user can control where to look for them. It is also useful
-in shells, for executing commands typed by the user.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment unistd.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun int execlp (const char *@var{filename}, const char *@var{arg0}, @dots{})
-This function is like @code{execl}, except that it performs the same
-file name searching as the @code{execvp} function.
-@end deftypefun
-
-
-The size of the argument list and environment list taken together must not
-be greater than @code{ARG_MAX} bytes. @xref{System Parameters}.
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} The POSIX.1 standard requires some statement here
-about how null terminators, null pointers, and alignment requirements
-affect the total size of the argument and environment lists.
-
-These functions normally don't return, since execution of a new program
-causes the currently executing program to go away completely. A value
-of @code{-1} is returned in the event of a failure. In addition to the
-usual file name syntax errors (@pxref{File Name Errors}), the following
-@code{errno} error conditions are defined for these functions:
-
-@table @code
-@item E2BIG
-The combined size of the new program's argument list and environment list
-is larger than @code{ARG_MAX} bytes.
-
-@item ENOEXEC
-The specified file can't be executed because it isn't in the right format.
-
-@item ENOMEM
-Executing the specified file requires more storage than is available.
-@end table
-
-If execution of the new file is successful, the access time field of the
-file is updated as if the file had been opened. @xref{File Times}, for
-more details about access times of files.
-
-The point at which the file is closed again is not specified, but
-is at some point before the process exits or before another process
-image is executed.
-
-Executing a new process image completely changes the contents of memory,
-except for the arguments and the environment, but many other attributes
-of the process are unchanged:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item
-The process ID and the parent process ID. @xref{Process Creation Concepts}.
-
-@item
-Session and process group membership. @xref{Job Control Concepts}.
-
-@item
-Real user ID and group ID, and supplementary group IDs. @xref{User/Group
-IDs of a Process}.
-
-@item
-Pending alarms. @xref{Setting an Alarm}.
-
-@item
-Current working directory and root directory. @xref{Working Directory}.
-
-@item
-File mode creation mask. @xref{Setting Permissions}.
-
-@item
-Process signal mask; see @ref{Process Signal Mask}.
-
-@item
-Pending signals; see @ref{Blocking Signals}.
-
-@item
-Elapsed processor time associated with the process; see @ref{Processor Time}.
-@end itemize
-
-If the set-user-ID and set-group-ID mode bits of the process image file
-are set, this affects the effective user ID and effective group ID
-(respectively) of the process. These concepts are discussed in detail
-in @ref{User/Group IDs of a Process}.
-
-Signals that are set to be ignored in the existing process image are
-also set to be ignored in the new process image. All other signals are
-set to the default action in the new process image. For more
-information about signals, see @ref{Signal Handling}.
-
-File descriptors open in the existing process image remain open in the
-new process image, unless they have the @code{FD_CLOEXEC}
-(close-on-exec) flag set. The files that remain open inherit all
-attributes of the open file description from the existing process image,
-including file locks. File descriptors are discussed in @ref{Low-Level
-Input/Output}.
-
-Streams, by contrast, cannot survive through @code{exec} functions,
-because they are located in the memory of the process itself. The new
-process image has no streams except those it creates afresh. Each of
-the streams in the pre-@code{exec} process image has a descriptor inside
-it, and these descriptors do survive through @code{exec} (provided that
-they do not have @code{FD_CLOEXEC} set. The new process image can
-reconnect these to new streams using @code{fdopen}.
-
-@node Process Completion, Process Completion Status, Executing a File, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Process Completion
-@cindex process completion
-@cindex waiting for completion of child process
-@cindex testing exit status of child process
-
-The functions described in this section are used to wait for a child
-process to terminate or stop, and determine its status. These functions
-are declared in the header file @file{sys/wait.h}.
-@pindex sys/wait.h
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefun pid_t waitpid (pid_t @var{pid}, int *@var{status_ptr}, int @var{options})
-The @code{waitpid} function is used to request status information from a
-child process whose process ID is @var{pid}. Normally, the calling
-process is suspended until the child process makes status information
-available by terminating.
-
-Other values for the @var{pid} argument have special interpretations. A
-value of @code{-1} or @code{WAIT_ANY} requests status information for
-any child process; a value of @code{0} or @code{WAIT_MYPGRP} requests
-information for any child process in the same process group as the
-calling process; and any other negative value @minus{} @var{pgid}
-requests information for any child process whose process group ID is
-@var{pgid}.
-
-If status information for a child process is available immediately, this
-function returns immediately without waiting. If more than one eligible
-child process has status information available, one of them is chosen
-randomly, and its status is returned immediately. To get the status
-from the other programs, you need to call @code{waitpid} again.
-
-The @var{options} argument is a bit mask. Its value should be the
-bitwise OR (that is, the @samp{|} operator) of zero or more of the
-@code{WNOHANG} and @code{WUNTRACED} flags. You can use the
-@code{WNOHANG} flag to indicate that the parent process shouldn't wait;
-and the @code{WUNTRACED} flag to request status information from stopped
-processes as well as processes that have terminated.
-
-The status information from the child process is stored in the object
-that @var{status_ptr} points to, unless @var{status_ptr} is a null pointer.
-
-The return value is normally the process ID of the child process whose
-status is reported. If the @code{WNOHANG} option was specified and no
-child process is waiting to be noticed, a value of zero is returned. A
-value of @code{-1} is returned in case of error. The following
-@code{errno} error conditions are defined for this function:
-
-@table @code
-@item EINTR
-The function was interrupted by delivery of a signal to the calling
-process.
-
-@item ECHILD
-There are no child processes to wait for, or the specified @var{pid}
-is not a child of the calling process.
-
-@item EINVAL
-An invalid value was provided for the @var{options} argument.
-@end table
-@end deftypefun
-
-These symbolic constants are defined as values for the @var{pid} argument
-to the @code{waitpid} function.
-
-@table @code
-@item WAIT_ANY
-This constant macro (whose value is @code{-1}) specifies that
-@code{waitpid} should return status information about any child process.
-
-@item WAIT_MYPGRP
-This constant (with value @code{0}) specifies that @code{waitpid} should
-return status information about any child process in the same process
-group as the calling process.
-
-These symbolic constants are defined as flags for the @var{options}
-argument to the @code{waitpid} function. You can bitwise-OR the flags
-together to obtain a value to use as the argument.
-
-@item WNOHANG
-This flag specifies that @code{waitpid} should return immediately
-instead of waiting if there is no child process ready to be noticed.
-
-@item WUNTRACED
-This macro is used to specify that @code{waitpid} should also report the
-status of any child processes that have been stopped as well as those
-that have terminated.
-@end table
-
-@deftypefun pid_t wait (int *@var{status_ptr})
-This is a simplified version of @code{waitpid}, and is used to wait
-until any one child process terminates.
-
-@example
-wait (&status)
-@end example
-
-@noindent
-is equivalent to:
-
-@example
-waitpid (-1, &status, 0)
-@end example
-
-Here's an example of how to use @code{waitpid} to get the status from
-all child processes that have terminated, without ever waiting. This
-function is designed to be used as a handler for @code{SIGCHLD}, the
-signal that indicates that at least one child process has terminated.
-
-@example
-void
-sigchld_handler (int signum)
-@{
- int pid;
- int status;
- while (1) @{
- pid = waitpid (WAIT_ANY, Estatus, WNOHANG);
- if (pid < 0) @{
- perror ("waitpid");
- break;
- @}
- if (pid == 0)
- break;
- notice_termination (pid, status);
- @}
-@}
-@end example
-@end deftypefun
-
-@node Process Completion Status, BSD wait Functions, Process Completion, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Process Completion Status
-
-If the exit status value (@pxref{Program Termination}) of the child
-process is zero, then the status value reported by @code{waitpid} or
-@code{wait} is also zero. You can test for other kinds of information
-encoded in the returned status value using the following macros.
-These macros are defined in the header file @file{sys/wait.h}.
-@pindex sys/wait.h
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefn Macro int WIFEXITED (int @var{status})
-This macro returns a non-zero value if the child process terminated
-normally with @code{exit} or @code{_exit}.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefn Macro int WEXITSTATUS (int @var{status})
-If @code{WIFEXITED} is true of @var{status}, this macro returns the
-low-order 8 bits of the exit status value from the child process.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefn Macro int WIFSIGNALED (int @var{status})
-This macro returns a non-zero value if the child process terminated
-by receiving a signal that was not handled.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefn Macro int WTERMSIG (int @var{status})
-If @code{WIFSIGNALED} is true of @var{status}, this macro returns the
-number of the signal that terminated the child process.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment BSD
-@deftypefn Macro int WCOREDUMP (int @var{status})
-This macro returns a non-zero value if the child process terminated
-and produced a core dump.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefn Macro int WIFSTOPPED (int @var{status})
-This macro returns a non-zero value if the child process is stopped.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment POSIX.1
-@deftypefn Macro int WSTOPSIG (int @var{status})
-If @code{WIFSTOPPED} is true of @var{status}, this macro returns the
-number of the signal that caused the child process to stop.
-@end deftypefn
-
-
-@node BSD wait Functions, Process Creation Example, Process Completion Status, Creating New Processes
-@subsection BSD Process Completion Functions
-
-The GNU library also provides these related facilities for compatibility
-with BSD Unix. BSD uses the @code{union wait} data type to represent
-status values rather than an @code{int}. The two representations are
-actually interchangeable; they describe the same bit patterns. The macros
-such as @code{WEXITSTATUS} are defined so that they will work on either
-kind of object, and the @code{wait} function is defined to accept either
-type of pointer as its @var{status_ptr} argument.
-
-These functions are declared in @file{sys/wait.h}.
-@pindex sys/wait.h
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment BSD
-@deftp {union Type} wait
-This data type represents program termination status values. It has
-the following members:
-
-@table @code
-@item int w_termsig
-This member is equivalent to the @code{WTERMSIG} macro.
-
-@item int w_coredump
-This member is equivalent to the @code{WCOREDUMP} macro.
-
-@item int w_retcode
-This member is equivalent to the @code{WEXISTATUS} macro.
-
-@item int w_stopsig
-This member is equivalent to the @code{WSTOPSIG} macro.
-@end table
-
-Instead of accessing these members directly, you should use the
-equivalent macros.
-@end deftp
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment BSD
-@deftypefun pid_t wait3 (union wait *@var{status_ptr}, int @var{options}, void * @var{usage})
-If @var{usage} is a null pointer, this function is equivalent to
-@code{waitpid (-1, @var{status_ptr}, @var{options})}.
-
-The @var{usage} argument may also be a pointer to a
-@code{struct rusage} object. Information about system resources used by
-terminated processes (but not stopped processes) is returned in this
-structure.
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} The description of the @code{struct rusage} structure
-hasn't been written yet. Put in a cross-reference here.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@comment sys/wait.h
-@comment BSD
-@deftypefun pid_t wait4 (pid_t @var{pid}, union wait *@var{status_ptr}, int @var{options}, void *@var{usage})
-If @var{usage} is a null pointer, this function is equivalent to
-@code{waitpid (@var{pid}, @var{status_ptr}, @var{options})}.
-
-The @var{usage} argument may also be a pointer to a
-@code{struct rusage} object. Information about system resources used by
-terminated processes (but not stopped processes) is returned in this
-structure.
-
-@strong{Incomplete:} The description of the @code{struct rusage} structure
-hasn't been written yet. Put in a cross-reference here.
-@end deftypefun
-
-@node Process Creation Example, , BSD wait Functions, Creating New Processes
-@subsection Process Creation Example
-
-Here is an example program showing how you might write a function
-similar to the built-in @code{system}. It executes its @var{command}
-argument using the equivalent of @samp{sh -c @var{command}}.
-
-@example
-#include <stddef.h>
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <unistd.h>
-#include <sys/types.h>
-#include <sys/wait.h>
-
-/* @r{Execute the command using this shell program.} */
-#define SHELL "/bin/sh"
-
-int
-my_system (char *command)
-@{
- int status;
- pid_t pid;
-
- pid = fork ();
- if (pid == 0) @{
- /* @r{This is the child process. Execute the shell command.} */
- execl (SHELL, SHELL, "-c", command, NULL);
- exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
- @}
- else if (pid < 0)
- /* @r{The fork failed. Report failure.} */
- status = -1;
- else @{
- /* @r{This is the parent process. Wait for the child to complete.} */
- if (waitpid (pid, &status, 0) != pid)
- status = -1;
- @}
- return status;
-@}
-@end example
-
-@comment Yes, this example has been tested.
-
-There are a couple of things you should pay attention to in this
-example.
-
-Remember that the first @code{argv} argument supplied to the program
-represents the name of the program being executed. That is why, in the
-call to @code{execl}, @code{SHELL} is supplied once to name the program
-to execute and a second time to supply a value for @code{argv[0]}.
-
-The @code{execl} call in the child process doesn't return if it is
-successful. If it fails, you must do something to make the child
-process terminate. Just returning a bad status code with @code{return}
-would leave two processes running the original program. Instead, the
-right behavior is for the child process to report failure to its parent
-process. To do this, @code{exit} is called with a failure status.
diff --git a/manual/=stdarg.texi b/manual/=stdarg.texi
deleted file mode 100644
index a209efc..0000000
--- a/manual/=stdarg.texi
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,290 +0,0 @@
-@node Variable Argument Facilities, Memory Allocation, Common Definitions, Top
-@chapter Variable Argument Facilities
-@cindex variadic argument functions
-@cindex variadic functions
-@cindex variable number of arguments
-@cindex optional arguments
-
-@w{ISO C} defines a syntax as part of the kernel language for specifying
-functions that take a variable number or type of arguments. (Such
-functions are also referred to as @dfn{variadic functions}.) However,
-the kernel language provides no mechanism for actually accessing
-non-required arguments; instead, you use the variable arguments macros
-defined in @file{stdarg.h}.
-@pindex stdarg.h
-
-@menu
-* Why Variable Arguments are Used:: Using variable arguments can
- save you time and effort.
-* How Variable Arguments are Used:: An overview of the facilities for
- receiving variable arguments.
-* Variable Arguments Interface:: Detailed specification of the
- library facilities.
-* Example of Variable Arguments:: A complete example.
-@end menu
-
-@node Why Variable Arguments are Used, How Variable Arguments are Used, , Variable Argument Facilities
-@section Why Variable Arguments are Used
-
-Most C functions take a fixed number of arguments. When you define a
-function, you also supply a specific data type for each argument.
-Every call to the function should supply the same number and type of
-arguments as specified in the function definition.
-
-On the other hand, sometimes a function performs an operation that can
-meaningfully accept an unlimited number of arguments.
-
-For example, consider a function that joins its arguments into a linked
-list. It makes sense to connect any number of arguments together into a
-list of arbitrary length. Without facilities for variable arguments,
-you would have to define a separate function for each possible number of
-arguments you might want to link together. This is an example of a
-situation where some kind of mapping or iteration is performed over an
-arbitrary number of arguments of the same type.
-
-Another kind of application where variable arguments can be useful is
-for functions where values for some arguments can simply be omitted in
-some calls, either because they are not used at all or because the
-function can determine appropriate defaults for them if they're missing.
-
-The library function @code{printf} (@pxref{Formatted Output}) is an
-example of still another class of function where variable arguments are
-useful. This function prints its arguments (which can vary in type as
-well as number) under the control of a format template string.
-
-@node How Variable Arguments are Used, Variable Arguments Interface, Why Variable Arguments are Used, Variable Argument Facilities
-@section How Variable Arguments are Used
-
-This section describes how you can define and call functions that take
-variable arguments, and how to access the values of the non-required
-arguments.
-
-@menu
-* Syntax for Variable Arguments:: How to make a prototype for a
- function with variable arguments.
-* Receiving the Argument Values:: Steps you must follow to access the
- optional argument values.
-* How Many Arguments:: How to decide whether there are more
- arguments.
-* Calling Variadic Functions:: Things you need to know about calling
- variable arguments functions.
-@end menu
-
-@node Syntax for Variable Arguments, Receiving the Argument Values, , How Variable Arguments are Used
-@subsection Syntax for Variable Arguments
-
-A function that accepts a variable number of arguments must have at
-least one required argument with a specified type. In the function
-definition or prototype declaration, you indicate the fact that a
-function can accept additional arguments of unspecified type by putting
-@samp{@dots{}} at the end of the arguments. For example,
-
-@example
-int
-func (const char *a, int b, @dots{})
-@{
- @dots{}
-@}
-@end example
-
-@noindent
-outlines a definition of a function @code{func} which returns an
-@code{int} and takes at least two arguments, the first two being a
-@code{const char *} and an @code{int}.@refill
-
-An obscure restriction placed by the @w{ISO C} standard is that the last
-required argument must not be declared @code{register} in the function
-definition. Furthermore, this argument must not be of a function or
-array type, and may not be, for example, a @code{char} or @code{short
-int} (whether signed or not) or a @code{float}.
-
-@strong{Compatibility Note:} Many older C dialects provide a similar,
-but incompatible, mechanism for defining functions with variable numbers
-of arguments. In particular, the @samp{@dots{}} syntax is a new feature
-of @w{ISO C}.
-
-
-@node Receiving the Argument Values, How Many Arguments, Syntax for Variable Arguments, How Variable Arguments are Used
-@subsection Receiving the Argument Values
-
-Inside the definition of a variadic function, to access the optional
-arguments with the following three step process:
-
-@enumerate
-@item
-You initialize an argument pointer variable of type @code{va_list} using
-@code{va_start}.
-
-@item
-You access the optional arguments by successive calls to @code{va_arg}.
-
-@item
-You call @code{va_end} to indicate that you are finished accessing the
-arguments.
-@end enumerate
-
-Steps 1 and 3 must be performed in the function that is defined to
-accept variable arguments. However, you can pass the @code{va_list}
-variable as an argument to another function and perform all or part of
-step 2 there. After doing this, the value of the @code{va_list}
-variable in the calling function becomes undefined for further calls to
-@code{va_arg}; you should just pass it to @code{va_end}.
-
-You can perform the entire sequence of the three steps multiple times
-within a single function invocation. And, if the function doesn't want
-to look at its optional arguments at all, it doesn't have to do any of
-these steps. It is also perfectly all right for a function to access
-fewer arguments than were supplied in the call, but you will get garbage
-values if you try to access too many arguments.
-
-
-@node How Many Arguments, Calling Variadic Functions, Receiving the Argument Values, How Variable Arguments are Used
-@subsection How Many Arguments Were Supplied
-
-There is no general way for a function to determine the number and type
-of the actual values that were passed as optional arguments. Typically,
-the value of one of the required arguments is used to tell the function
-this information. It is up to you to define an appropriate calling
-convention for each function, and write all calls accordingly.
-
-One calling convention is to make one of the required arguments be an
-explicit argument count. This convention is usable if all of the
-optional arguments are of the same type.
-
-A required argument can be used as a pattern to specify both the number
-and types of the optional arguments. The format template string
-argument to @code{printf} is one example of this.
-
-A similar technique that is sometimes used is to have one of the
-required arguments be a bit mask, with a bit for each possible optional
-argument that might be supplied. The bits are tested in a predefined
-sequence; if the bit is set, the value of the next argument is
-retrieved, and otherwise a default value is used.
-
-Another technique that is sometimes used is to pass an ``end marker''
-value as the last optional argument. For example, for a function that
-manipulates an arbitrary number of pointer arguments, a null pointer
-might indicate the end of the argument list, provided that a null
-pointer isn't otherwise meaningful to the function.
-
-
-@node Calling Variadic Functions, , How Many Arguments, How Variable Arguments are Used
-@subsection Calling Variadic Functions
-
-Functions that are @emph{defined} to be variadic must also be
-@emph{declared} to be variadic using a function prototype in the scope
-of all calls to it. This is because C compilers might use a different
-internal function call protocol for variadic functions than for
-functions that take a fixed number and type of arguments. If the
-compiler can't determine in advance that the function being called is
-variadic, it may end up trying to call it incorrectly and your program
-won't work.
-@cindex function prototypes
-@cindex prototypes for variadic functions
-@cindex variadic functions need prototypes
-
-Since the prototype doesn't specify types for optional arguments, in a
-call to a variadic function the @dfn{default argument promotions} are
-performed on the optional argument values. This means the objects of
-type @code{char} or @code{short int} (whether signed or not) are
-promoted to either @code{int} or @code{unsigned int}, as appropriate;
-and that objects of type @code{float} are promoted to type
-@code{double}. So, if the caller passes a @code{char} as an optional
-argument, it is promoted to a @code{int}, and the function should get it
-with @code{va_arg (@var{ap}, int)}.
-
-Promotions of the required arguments are determined by the function
-prototype in the usual way (as if by assignment to the types of the
-corresponding formal parameters).
-@cindex default argument promotions
-@cindex argument promotion
-
-@node Variable Arguments Interface, Example of Variable Arguments, How Variable Arguments are Used, Variable Argument Facilities
-@section Variable Arguments Interface
-
-Here are descriptions of the macros used to retrieve variable arguments.
-These macros are defined in the header file @file{stdarg.h}.
-@pindex stdarg.h
-
-@comment stdarg.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftp {Data Type} va_list
-The type @code{va_list} is used for argument pointer variables.
-@end deftp
-
-@comment stdarg.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefn {Macro} void va_start (va_list @var{ap}, @var{last_required})
-This macro initialized the argument pointer variable @var{ap} to point
-to the first of the optional arguments of the current function;
-@var{last_required} must be the last required argument to the function.
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment stdarg.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefn {Macro} @var{type} va_arg (va_list @var{ap}, @var{type})
-The @code{va_arg} macro returns the value of the next optional argument,
-and changes the internal state of @var{ap} to move past this argument.
-Thus, successive uses of @code{va_arg} return successive optional
-arguments.
-The type of the value returned by @code{va_arg} is the @var{type}
-specified in the call.
-
-The @var{type} must match the type of the actual argument, and must not
-be @code{char} or @code{short int} or @code{float}. (Remember that the
-default argument promotions apply to optional arguments.)
-@end deftypefn
-
-@comment stdarg.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefn {Macro} void va_end (va_list @var{ap})
-This ends the use of @var{ap}. After a @code{va_end} call, further
-@code{va_arg} calls with the same @var{ap} may not work. You should invoke
-@code{va_end} before returning from the function in which @code{va_start}
-was invoked with the same @var{ap} argument.
-
-In the GNU C library, @code{va_end} does nothing, and you need not ever
-use it except for reasons of portability.
-@refill
-@end deftypefn
-
-
-@node Example of Variable Arguments, , Variable Arguments Interface, Variable Argument Facilities
-@section Example of Variable Arguments
-
-Here is a complete sample function that accepts variable numbers of
-arguments. The first argument to the function is the count of remaining
-arguments, which are added up and the result returned. (This is
-obviously a rather pointless function, but it serves to illustrate the
-way the variable arguments facility is commonly used.)
-
-@comment Yes, this example has been tested.
-
-@example
-#include <stdarg.h>
-
-int
-add_em_up (int count, @dots{})
-@{
- va_list ap;
- int i, sum;
-
- va_start (ap, count); /* @r{Initialize the argument list.} */
-
- sum = 0;
- for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
- sum = sum + va_arg (ap, int); /* @r{Get the next argument value.} */
-
- va_end (ap); /* @r{Clean up.} */
- return sum;
-@}
-
-void main (void)
-@{
- /* @r{This call prints 16.} */
- printf ("%d\n", add_em_up (3, 5, 5, 6));
-
- /* @r{This call prints 55.} */
- printf ("%d\n", add_em_up (10, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10));
-@}
-@end example
diff --git a/manual/=stddef.texi b/manual/=stddef.texi
deleted file mode 100644
index e15fd73..0000000
--- a/manual/=stddef.texi
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,81 +0,0 @@
-@node Common Definitions, Memory Allocation, Error Reporting, Top
-@chapter Common Definitions
-
-There are some miscellaneous data types and macros that are not part of
-the C language kernel but are nonetheless almost universally used, such
-as the macro @code{NULL}. In order to use these type and macro
-definitions, your program should include the header file
-@file{stddef.h}.
-@pindex stddef.h
-
-@comment stddef.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftp {Data Type} ptrdiff_t
-This is the signed integer type of the result of subtracting two
-pointers. For example, with the declaration @code{char *p1, *p2;}, the
-expression @code{p2 - p1} is of type @code{ptrdiff_t}. This will
-probably be one of the standard signed integer types (@code{short int},
-@code{int} or @code{long int}), but might be a nonstandard type that
-exists only for this purpose.
-@end deftp
-
-@comment stddef.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftp {Data Type} size_t
-This is an unsigned integer type used to represent the sizes of objects.
-The result of the @code{sizeof} operator is of this type, and functions
-such as @code{malloc} (@pxref{Unconstrained Allocation}) and
-@code{memcpy} (@pxref{Copying and Concatenation}) that manipulate
-objects of arbitrary sizes accept arguments of this type to specify
-object sizes.
-@end deftp
-
-In the GNU system @code{size_t} is equivalent to one of the types
-@code{unsigned int} and @code{unsigned long int}. These types have
-identical properties on the GNU system, and for most purposes, you
-can use them interchangeably. However, they are distinct types,
-and in certain contexts, you may not treat them as identical. For
-example, when you specify the type of a function argument in a
-function prototype, it makes a difference which one you use. If
-the system header files declare @code{malloc} with an argument
-of type @code{size_t} and you declare @code{malloc} with an argument
-of type @code{unsigned int}, you will get a compilation error if
-@code{size_t} happens to be @code{unsigned long int} on your system.
-To avoid any possibility of error, when a function argument is
-supposed to have type @code{size_t}, always write the type as
-@code{size_t}, and make no assumptions about what that type might
-actually be.
-
-@strong{Compatibility Note:} Types such as @code{size_t} are new
-features of @w{ISO C}. Older, pre-ANSI C implementations have
-traditionally used @code{unsigned int} for representing object sizes
-and @code{int} for pointer subtraction results.
-
-@comment stddef.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypevr Macro {void *} NULL
-@cindex null pointer
-This is a null pointer constant. It can be assigned to any pointer
-variable since it has type @code{void *}, and is guaranteed not to
-point to any real object. This macro is the best way to get a null
-pointer value. You can also use @code{0} or @code{(void *)0} as a null
-pointer constant, but using @code{NULL} makes the purpose of the
-constant more evident.
-
-When passing a null pointer as an argument to a function for which there
-is no prototype declaration in scope, you should explicitly cast
-@code{NULL} or @code{0} into a pointer of the appropriate type. Again,
-this is because the default argument promotions may not do the right
-thing.
-@end deftypevr
-
-@comment stddef.h
-@comment ISO
-@deftypefn {Macro} size_t offsetof (@var{type}, @var{member})
-This expands to a integer constant expression that is the offset of the
-structure member named @var{member} in a @code{struct} of type
-@var{type}. For example, @code{offsetof (struct s, elem)} is the
-offset, in bytes, of the member @code{elem} in a @code{struct s}. This
-macro won't work if @var{member} is a bit field; you get an error from
-the C compiler in that case.
-@end deftypefn
diff --git a/manual/Makefile b/manual/Makefile
index 0e8ae85..fafa7e7 100644
--- a/manual/Makefile
+++ b/manual/Makefile
@@ -66,10 +66,10 @@ stamp-summary: summary.awk $(chapters) $(chapters-incl)
# Generate a file which can be added to the `dir' content to provide direct
# access to the documentation of the function, variables, and other
# definitions.
-dir-add.texi: manual/xtract-typefun.awk $(chapters-incl)
- if test -n "$(chapters-incl)"; then \
- (for i in $(chapters-incl); do \
- $(GAWK) -f $< < $i; \
+dir-add.texi: xtract-typefun.awk $(chapters)
+ if test -n "$(chapters)"; then \
+ (for i in $(chapters); do \
+ $(GAWK) -f $< < $$i; \
done) | sort > $@.new; \
./move-if-change $@.new $@; \
fi
diff --git a/manual/arith.texi b/manual/arith.texi
index 59ddbd6..d8703ea 100644
--- a/manual/arith.texi
+++ b/manual/arith.texi
@@ -411,7 +411,36 @@ type @code{long int} rather than @code{int}.)
@deftypefun ldiv_t ldiv (long int @var{numerator}, long int @var{denominator})
The @code{ldiv} function is similar to @code{div}, except that the
arguments are of type @code{long int} and the result is returned as a
-structure of type @code{ldiv}.
+structure of type @code{ldiv_t}.
+@end deftypefun
+
+@comment stdlib.h
+@comment GNU
+@deftp {Data Type} lldiv_t
+This is a structure type used to hold the result returned by the @code{lldiv}
+function. It has the following members:
+
+@table @code
+@item long long int quot
+The quotient from the division.
+
+@item long long int rem
+The remainder from the division.
+@end table
+
+(This is identical to @code{div_t} except that the components are of
+type @code{long long int} rather than @code{int}.)
+@end deftp
+
+@comment stdlib.h
+@comment GNU
+@deftypefun lldiv_t lldiv (long long int @var{numerator}, long long int @var{denominator})
+The @code{lldiv} function is like the @code{div} function, but the
+arguments are of type @code{long long int} and the result is returned as
+a structure of type @code{lldiv_t}.
+
+The @code{lldiv} function is a GNU extension but it will eventually be
+part of the next ISO C standard.
@end deftypefun
@@ -519,42 +548,48 @@ to @code{EINVAL} and returns @code{0ul}.
@end deftypefun
@comment stdlib.h
-@comment BSD
-@deftypefun {long long int} strtoq (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
-The @code{strtoq} (``string-to-quad-word'') function is like
-@code{strtol} except that is deals with extra long numbers and it
-returns its value with type @code{long long int}.
+@comment GNU
+@deftypefun {long long int} strtoll (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
+The @code{strtoll} function is like @code{strtol} except that is deals
+with extra long numbers and it returns its value with type @code{long
+long int}.
If the string has valid syntax for an integer but the value is not
-representable because of overflow, @code{strtoq} returns either
+representable because of overflow, @code{strtoll} returns either
@code{LONG_LONG_MAX} or @code{LONG_LONG_MIN} (@pxref{Range of Type}), as
appropriate for the sign of the value. It also sets @code{errno} to
@code{ERANGE} to indicate there was overflow.
-@end deftypefun
-@comment stdlib.h
-@comment GNU
-@deftypefun {long long int} strtoll (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
-@code{strtoll} is only an commonly used other name for the @code{strtoq}
-function. Everything said for @code{strtoq} applies to @code{strtoll}
-as well.
+The @code{strtoll} function is a GNU extension but it will eventually be
+part of the next ISO C standard.
@end deftypefun
@comment stdlib.h
@comment BSD
-@deftypefun {unsigned long long int} strtouq (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
-The @code{strtouq} (``string-to-unsigned-quad-word'') function is like
-@code{strtoul} except that is deals with extra long numbers and it
-returns its value with type @code{unsigned long long int}. The value
-returned in case of overflow is @code{ULONG_LONG_MAX} (@pxref{Range of Type}).
+@deftypefun {long long int} strtoq (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
+@code{strtoq} (``string-to-quad-word'') is only an commonly used other
+name for the @code{strtoll} function. Everything said for
+@code{strtoll} applies to @code{strtoq} as well.
@end deftypefun
@comment stdlib.h
@comment GNU
@deftypefun {unsigned long long int} strtoull (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
-@code{strtoull} is only an commonly used other name for the @code{strtouq}
-function. Everything said for @code{strtouq} applies to @code{strtoull}
-as well.
+The @code{strtoull} function is like @code{strtoul} except that is deals
+with extra long numbers and it returns its value with type
+@code{unsigned long long int}. The value returned in case of overflow
+is @code{ULONG_LONG_MAX} (@pxref{Range of Type}).
+
+The @code{strtoull} function is a GNU extension but it will eventually be
+part of the next ISO C standard.
+@end deftypefun
+
+@comment stdlib.h
+@comment BSD
+@deftypefun {unsigned long long int} strtouq (const char *@var{string}, char **@var{tailptr}, int @var{base})
+@code{strtouq} (``string-to-unsigned-quad-word'') is only an commonly
+used other name for the @code{strtoull} function. Everything said for
+@code{strtoull} applies to @code{strtouq} as well.
@end deftypefun
@comment stdlib.h
@@ -574,6 +609,16 @@ value rather than @code{long int}. The @code{atoi} function is also
considered obsolete; use @code{strtol} instead.
@end deftypefun
+@comment stdlib.h
+@comment GNU
+@deftypefun {long long int} atoll (const char *@var{string})
+This function is similar to @code{atol}, except it returns a @code{long
+long int} value rather than @code{long int}.
+
+The @code{atoll} function is a GNU extension but it will eventually be
+part of the next ISO C standard.
+@end deftypefun
+
The POSIX locales contain some information about how to format numbers
(@pxref{General Numeric}). This mainly deals with representing numbers
for better readability for humans. The functions present so far in this
@@ -688,6 +733,24 @@ the sign of the value. Similarly, if the value is not representable
because of underflow, @code{strtod} returns zero. It also sets @code{errno}
to @code{ERANGE} if there was overflow or underflow.
+There are two more special inputs which are recognized by @code{strtod}.
+The string @code{"inf"} or @code{"infinity"} (without consideration of
+case and optionally preceded by a @code{"+"} or @code{"-"} sign) is
+changed to the floating-point value for infinity if the floating-point
+format supports this; and to the largest representable value otherwise.
+
+If the input string is @code{"nan"} or
+@code{"nan(@var{n-char-sequence})"} the return value of @code{strtod} is
+the representation of the NaN (not a number) value (if the
+flaoting-point formats supports this. The form with the
+@var{n-char-sequence} enables in an implementation specific way to
+specify the form of the NaN value. When using the @w{IEEE 754}
+floating-point format, the NaN value can have a lot of forms since only
+at least one bit in the mantissa must be set. In the GNU C library
+implementation of @code{strtod} the @var{n-char-sequence} is interpreted
+as a number (as recognized by @code{strtol}, @pxref{Parsing of Integers})
+The mantissa of the return value corresponds to this given number.
+
Since the value zero which is returned in the error case is also a valid
result the user should set the global variable @code{errno} to zero
before calling this function. So one can test for failures after the
@@ -707,7 +770,7 @@ precision can require additional computation.
If the string has valid syntax for a floating-point number but the value
is not representable because of overflow, @code{strtof} returns either
-positive or negative @code{HUGE_VALf} (@pxref{Mathematics}), depending on
+positive or negative @code{HUGE_VALF} (@pxref{Mathematics}), depending on
the sign of the value.
This function is a GNU extension.
@@ -725,7 +788,7 @@ of precision are required.
If the string has valid syntax for a floating-point number but the value
is not representable because of overflow, @code{strtold} returns either
-positive or negative @code{HUGE_VALl} (@pxref{Mathematics}), depending on
+positive or negative @code{HUGE_VALL} (@pxref{Mathematics}), depending on
the sign of the value.
This function is a GNU extension.
diff --git a/manual/lang.texi b/manual/lang.texi
index 39bba83..7520da2 100644
--- a/manual/lang.texi
+++ b/manual/lang.texi
@@ -462,6 +462,44 @@ use it except for reasons of portability.
@refill
@end deftypefn
+Sometimes it is necessary to parse the list of parameters more than once
+or one wants to remember a certain position in the parameter list. To
+do this one will have to make a copy of the current value of the
+argument. But @code{va_list} is an opaque type and it is not guaranteed
+that one can simply assign the value of a variable to another one of
+type @code{va_list}
+
+@comment stdarg.h
+@comment GNU
+@deftypefn {Macro} void __va_copy (va_list @var{dest}, va_list @var{src})
+The @code{__va_copy} macro allows copying of objects of type
+@code{va_list} even if this is no integral type. The argument pointer
+in @var{dest} is initialized to point to the same argument as the
+pointer in @var{src}.
+
+This macro is a GNU extension but it will hopefully also be available in
+the next update of the ISO C standard.
+@end deftypefn
+
+If you want to use @code{__va_copy} you should always be prepared that
+this macro is not available. On architectures where a simple assignment
+is invalid it hopefully is and so one should always write something like
+this:
+
+@smallexample
+@{
+ va_list ap, save;
+ @dots{}
+#ifdef __va_copy
+ __va_copy (save, ap);
+#else
+ save = ap;
+#endif
+ @dots{}
+@}
+@end smallexample
+
+
@node Variadic Example
@subsection Example of a Variadic Function
diff --git a/manual/socket.texi b/manual/socket.texi
index cb7b5dd..c122106 100644
--- a/manual/socket.texi
+++ b/manual/socket.texi
@@ -826,6 +826,10 @@ string in the standard numbers-and-dots notation. The return value is
a pointer into a statically-allocated buffer. Subsequent calls will
overwrite the same buffer, so you should copy the string if you need
to save it.
+
+In multi-threaded programs each thread has an own statically-allocated
+buffer. But still subsequent calls of @code{inet_ntoa} in the same
+thread will overwrite the result of the last call.
@end deftypefun
@comment arpa/inet.h
diff --git a/manual/stdio.texi b/manual/stdio.texi
index 103be34..dd85554 100644
--- a/manual/stdio.texi
+++ b/manual/stdio.texi
@@ -1479,11 +1479,11 @@ the @var{size} argument specifies the maximum number of characters to
produce. The trailing null character is counted towards this limit, so
you should allocate at least @var{size} characters for the string @var{s}.
-The return value is the number of characters which are generated for the
-given input. If this value is greater than @var{size}, not all
-characters from the result have been stored in @var{s}. You should
-try again with a bigger output string. Here is an example of doing
-this:
+The return value is the number of characters which would be generated
+for the given input. If this value is greater or equal to @var{size},
+not all characters from the result have been stored in @var{s}. You
+should try again with a bigger output string. Here is an example of
+doing this:
@smallexample
@group
@@ -1503,7 +1503,7 @@ make_message (char *name, char *value)
name, value);
@end group
@group
- if (nchars) >= size)
+ if (nchars >= size)
@{
/* @r{Reallocate buffer now that we know how much space is needed.} */
buffer = (char *) xrealloc (buffer, nchars + 1);